Advanced Placement U.S. Government Study Guide

This AP US Government Study Guide has been created as a preparation for the AP U.S. Government and Politics Exam.  It is not a stand-alone guide that will guarantee success.  It is however, a continuation of our examination of U.S. Government and Politics this year, and if followed, will give you a significant advantage for success. 

If you have taken and kept careful broadcast notes, created a test bank, quiz bank, and a timed write bank in your notebook as suggested, this study guide will be a compliment that will aid you in your AP Government Test  preparation.

First, study your notes.   Get a “Study Buddy”, someone who will be an asset and a positive study partner. Use the below Template for Study to create/organize your notes.  Create a set of notes that fits into the Comparative Politics Template, as if you were examining the U.S. Government as a student of Comparative Politics. 

Second, once you have completed the Template, go to the multiple-choice questions that follow.  Challenge yourself in each topical area of the questions.  Quiz each other.  Compare answers.  Discuss your reasoning. Make notes of new information.

Third, go over the multiple-choice tests you have taken this year.  Pay particular attention to the questions that present information in the question format, “ All of the following are …. EXCEPT…”. “Which of the following are…..”  These type of questions present a tremendous amount of information, if you can determine which is the exception or which is true of false.

Fourth, go to the Timed Write Questions.  Instead of writing out beautifully composed narratives, create separate answer strategies.   Create short outlines that present a strategy as to how/what information you will use to answer the question.  If the answer calls for “list 2 ways”, list three or four.  If the answer calls for giving two examples, give three.  Remember, your answer will be graded on the basis of a rubric that gives credit for correct answers.  It does not take away points for wrong answers, it just gives you credit for right ones.   If the question asks for two reasons why, and you give three reasons why. If one is wrong, you will still earn credit for the two that were right.  Attempt ALL the questions.

Lastly, there is an AP Multiple Choice Exam included at the end of the study guide.  Time yourself and take the exam.  Check your answers after you complete it.  Learn from your mistakes. Revel in your success.


The amount of time you put into preparing for the AP Government and Politics exam will be directly proportional to your personal success.  Do not attempt to cram all in one night.  Instead, prepare daily study time well in advance of the test.

I hope that you find this study guide of some use.  Good luck and study smart!





The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of the forces that have shaped the particular character of the state.

          A. Critical Events - the historical process by which its’ current

political system was formed

          B. Critical Junctures - major stages and/or turning points in the state’s


          1. How has the country assumed its present geographic shape and

political order?

2. How have relations between the state and the society it governs

developed over time?

C. Implications for Contemporary Politics - how does the past

pattern of state development continue to shape the country’s political





A. State and Economy - the basic organization of the country’s economy. 

1. What role does the state have in managing the state’s economy?

2. Are there any other “economic actors” in the country?

          B. Society and Economy - the social and political implications of the

country’s economic situation

          1. Who benefits from economic change?

          2. How does economic development create or reinforce class,

ethnic, gender, regional, or ideological cleavages?

C. International Political Economy - the country’s global role in patterns of trade and foreign investment

          1. The relationship to regional and international organizations.

          2. How have international economic issues affected or reflected the

domestic political agenda?




          A. Organization of the State - the fundamental principles - as

reflected in its’ constitution, its official ideology, and historical experience

- on which the political system and the distribution of political power are


          1. The basic structure of the state: legislative, executive, judiciary,

military, state run corporations, sub- national government.

          B. Policy Making Process - how state policy is made and implemented



A. Relationship Between the State and Society - how society within the state participates, are represented in the political system, how society influences policymaking.

B. Party System / Election Process - reviews individual political parties within the system and discusses the election process.

C. Political Culture, Citizenship, and Identity - the nature and source of political values and attitudes

          1. Education systems

          2. The media

          3. Religion

          4. Ethnicity

D. Interests, Social Movements, and Protest - when and where do citizens engage in acts of protest and the state’s response.




A. Contemporary Issues and Tensions/Political Challenges - those that may shape the direction of future political change



Although this “Comparative Politics Template” is designed to be used to investigate foreign governments and states, it can be used as a study guide for an examination of U.S. Government.


 Advanced Placement Government and Politics:

Multiple Choice Practice Questions

 Constitutional Development

1.    Which of the following is considered a linkage institution?

a.    The bureaucracy

b.    The Congress

c.     The executive department

d.    The government

e.    The media


2.    All of the following are characteristics of politics EXCEPT

a.    conflict

b.    compromise

c.     resolution

d.    the advocacy of minority rights

e.    the interrelationship of individuals and groups


3. Which of the following institutions established in the Constitution make public policy?

a.       the Senate, the president, and political parties

b.       the Congress, the president, and the courts

c.       the Congress, the courts, and the military

d.       the Congress, the president, and the military

e.       the Congress, the president, and the bureaucracy


4. Which of the following best defines a set of institutions linking government, politics, and public policy?

a.       an educational system

b.       a political system

c.       a social system

d.       an economic system

e.       a socioeconomic system


5. Which of he following is considered linkage institutions?

I.                    Congress

II.                  Political parties

III.                Elections

IV.                The bureaucracy

a.       I only

b.       I and II only

c.       II and III only

d.       I, II, and III only

e.       I, II, III, and IV


6. Which of the following principles describes a philosophy of the Federalist Party?

a.       Federalists believed in a loose construction of the Constitution

b.       Federalists believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution

c.       Federalists believed in a conservative interpretation of the Constitution

d.       Federalists believed that Congress should be the main cog of government

e.       Federalists believed that the interests of the common man should be reflected in government


7. All of the following characteristics reflect the reasons why political parties are formed EXCEPT

a.       people band together because of similar needs

b.       people band together because of similar values

c.       people band together because they have similar income

d.       people band together because they have similar goals

e.       people band together because they have similar beliefs


8. Which of the following groups reflects a view so narrow that it examines a candidate’s record on only one specific issue?

a.       single-interest groups

b.       multi-issue groups

c.       plurality groups

d.       Democrats

e.       Republicans


9. All of the following are basic tenens of our democracy today EXCEPT

a.       a belief in the worth and dignity of the individual

b.       a belief in the respect for equality

c.       a belief in universal health care

d.       a belief in the guarantee of individual freedoms

e.       a belief in majority rule with minority rights


10. Which of the following institutions is commonly called the fourth branch of government?

a.       the bureaucracy

b.       the media

c.       the Internal Revenue Service

d.       the CIA

e.       the FBI


11. Which of the following principles is most fundamental to democratic theory?

a.       free elections

b.       minority rules

c.       civil rights

d.       political parties

e.       a written constitution


12. Which of the following factors is most essential to an enlightened understanding of the general citizenry?

a.       interest groups

b.       free speech and a free press

c.       the right to property

d.       political parties

e.       a bill of rights


13. Which of the following groups believes that bargaining and compromise are essential ingredients in our democracy?

a.       elitists

b.       pluralists

c.       hyperpluralists

d.       Democrats

e.       Republicans


14. Which of the following theories contends that our society is divided along class lines and that a narrow upper class strata rules regardless of the formal organization of government?

a. elite b. pluralist         c. hyperpluralist             d. socialist                     e. egalitarian


15. Which of the following theories claims that too many competing groups cripple government’s ability to govern?

a.       hyperpluralist theory

b.       pluralist theory

c.       elite theory

d.       democratic theory

e.       class-based theory


16. Which of the following groups share the belief that the public interest is rarely translated into public policy?

a.       elitist and pluralist

b.       pluralist and hyperpluralist

c.       elitist and hyperpluralist

d.       Democrats and Republicans

e.       Liberals and conservatives


Answer Key

1. E                   2. D                  3. B                   4. B                   5. C                  6. A


7. C                  8. A                  9. C                  10. A                 11. A                 12. B


13. B                 14. A                 15. A                 16. C



Foundations of the Constitution


17. Which statement(s) best reflects what the United States Constitution represents?

I.                    The Constitution is a set of basic laws for government

II.                  The Constitution is an explanation of the way government operates assigning separate powers to each branch and guaranteeing citizens their rights

III.                The Constitution is the supreme law of the land

a.       I only

b.       III only

c.       I and III only

d.       II and III only

e.       I, II, and III


18. John Locke’s Second Treatise of Civil Government advocates

a.       a divine monarchy

b.       rights for the minority

c.       majority rights

d.       natural rights

e.       democratic rule


19. Which of the following statements best reflects the political philosophy established after the colonists achieved their independence?

I.                    The former colonists eliminated property criteria for political office

II.                  The former colonists recognized the need for a strong executive

III.                The former colonists believed that the states should become the dominant political and social force

a.       I only

b.       I and II only

c.       I, II, and III

d.       III only

e.       II and III only


20. When the Articles of Confederation were adopted, the nation’s major concern was dominated by

a.       slavery

b.       religious freedom

c.       equality for women

d.       political dominance by the central government

e.       economic issues


21. Which of the following documents represents the first adopted Constitution of the U.S.?

a.       Declaration of Independence

b.       Bill of Rights

c.       Articles of Confederation

d.       Virginia Plan

e.       Connecticut Plan


22. Which of the following statements best describes the Articles of Confederation?

domination of the government by the states

I.                    a national congress with one house and no executive

II.                  no national court system

III.                no ability of the central government to enforce the collection of taxes

a.       I only

b.       I and II only

c.       I, II, and III only

d.       I and IV only

e.       I, II, III, and IV


23. Which of the following statements by the Federalist Papers referred to “the most common and durable source of faction”?

I.                    a new and emerging middle class

II.                  the absence of a strong national government

III.                the unequal distribution of property

IV.                the abuse of minority rights

a.       I only

b.       I and II only

c.       III only

d.       I, II, and III only

e.       II and IV only


24. Madison believed that in order to prevent a “tyranny of the majority” the new government should include all of the following EXCEPT

a.       creating political institutions that could function with the consent of a majority

b.       limiting the president’s term in office

c.       creating different branches of government with distinctive and separate powers

d.       creating a system of checks and balances

e.       limiting the ability of the electorate to vote directly for government officials except members of the House


25. Complete the following statement:

Even though the representatives to the Constitutional Convention came from different parts of the country and had differing economic status, they were able to agree to

I.                    a series of political compromises

II.                  a Republican government for each state

III.                the method to count slaves for representation purposes

a.       I only

b.       I and II only

c.       I, II, and III

d.       II and III only

e.       I and III only


26. Which statement reflects James Madison’s point of view in the Federalist Papers regarding the consequences of unequal distribution of wealth?

I.                    the formation of factions

II.                  the probability of minority discontent

III.                the development of political parties

a.       I only

b.       II only

c.       I and III only

d.       I, II, and III

e.       II and III only


27. Which of the following documents created a compromise that led to the formation of a bicameral legislature?

a.       Articles of Confederation

b.       Connecticut Compromise

c.       New Jersey Plan

d.       Virginia Plan

e.       Three-Fifths Compromise


28. Which of the following statements reflects and action taken by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention?

I.                    setting a date for the abolition of slavery in the North

II.                  outlawing future importing of slaves

III.                setting a number for counting slaves for representation purposes

a.       I only

b.       II only

c.       I, II, and III

d.       I and III only

e.       II and III only


29. The Federalists believed that a nation dominated by factions would lead to

a.       tyranny of the majority

b.       protection of minority rights

c.       a recognition that factions would be in the best interests of the country

d.       another revolution

e.       favorable economic growth


30. The national government under the Articles of Confederation

a.       consisted of three branches

b.       promoted unity among the states

c.       had a bicameral legislature

d.       consisted of a unicameral legislature

e.       required unanimous passage of all legislation


31. Shay’s Rebellion was significant because

a.       allowed commercial interests to express their disenchantment with the status quo

b.       symbolized the weakness of the central government under the Articles of Confederation

c.       expressed the discontent of the upper class

d.       was the first organized protest against slavery in the colonies

e.       was a great victory for the agrarian interests


32. The following leaders were all prominent among the leaders at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 EXCEPT

a.       Thomas Jefferson

b.       Ben Franklin

c.       James Madison

d.       Gouvernor Morris

e.       George Washington


33. The Connecticut Compromise resolved the controversy at the Constitutional Convention involving

a.       the method of choosing a president

b.       the regulation of interstate commerce

c.       representation in Congress

d.       the protection of the institution of slavery

e.       ratification of the Constitution


34. One purpose of the Electoral College was to

a.       ensure that only qualified candidates would run for the presidency

b.       ensure an independent executive branch

c.       promote democracy

d.       provide for a direct method of choosing the chief executive

e.       give the small states and equal voice in choosing the president


35. The stated purpose of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 was to

a.       write a new plan for government

b.       eliminate the growth of the institution of slavery

c.       raise more money by taxing exports

d.       construct a more democratic form of government

e.       reform the Articles of Confederation


36. Congress under the Articles of Confederation

a.       could require the states to provide financial support

b.       represented the interests of the individual states

c.       could conscript individuals for military service

d.       was dominated by a strong chief executive

e.       forcefully dealt with Shays’ Rebellion


37. James Madison’s Federalist 10 articulated the belief of the Founding Fathers that the Constitution would

a.       lead to a tyranny of the majority

b.       promote the growth of political parties

c.       control the effects of factions

d.       allow the states to maintain their preeminence

e.       lead to a tyranny of the minority


38. A major concern of the Anti-Federalists involved

a.       their desire to strengthen the central government

b.       their fear that the states would maintain their dominance under the new government

c.       their fear that foreign governments would try to overpower the new nation

d.       their belief that a strong chief executive was necessary

e.       their desire to see a bill of rights guaranteeing individual protections added to the Constitution


Answer Key

17. E                 18. D                 19. D                 20.E                  21. C                 22. E


23. C                 24. B                 25. C                 26. D                 27. B                 28. E


29. A                 30. D                 31. B                 32. A                 33. C                 34. B


35. E                 36. B                 37. C                 38. E



The Constitution


39. British documents such as the Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, and the Bill of Rights

a.       stressed the supremacy of the monarch

b.       advanced the concept of limited government

c.       were written by John Locke

d.       were rejected by the Founding Fathers

e.       were rejected by the British Parliament


40. Under a federal system of government, all of the following are TRUE EXCEPT

a.       local matters are largely handled on a local level

b.       national matters are the responsibility of the federal government

c.       federal and state governments have powers that sometimes overlap

d.       in cases where powers are in conflict, the state government is supreme

e.       in cases where powers are in conflict, the national government is supreme


41.The system under which each branch can limit the actions of the other branches is called

a.  separation of powers             b. checks and balances               c. federalism

d. limited government                 e. representative government


42. The opening words of the Constitution, “We the people”, express the fundamental principle of

a.  popular sovereignty               b. rule of law                             c. constitutionalism

d. federalism                             e. the republicanism


43. The section of the Constitution that clearly states the concept of federalism is

a. Article I                                 B. Article II                                c. Article III

d. the 10th Amendment              e. the Preamble


44. Under the system of checks and balances, all of the following are allowed EXCEPT

a.       the Senate’s refusal to approve the president’s appointment of a justice to the Supreme Court

b.       the Senate’s refusal to ratify a treaty negotiated by the president and his foreign policy advisors

c.       the Senate’s dismissal of a Cabinet member accused of accepting bribes

d.       the president’s lobbying for a new crime bill to be passed in Congress

e.       the Supreme Court’s ruling that an executive order is unconstitutional


45. Which of the following describes the system of checks and balances and separation of powers?

I.                    It does not favor the party in power

II.                  It can create gridlock

III.                It can make change easy to come by

IV.                It can encourage political controversy

a.       II only

b.       I and II only

c.       II and III only

d.       I, II, and III only

e.       II and IV only


46. The Constitution’s writers carefully drafted a document that would create

a.       strong states and a weak central government

b.       weakened power in the state and national government

c.       the ability to adapt to changing times

d.       a dominant national government with no active participation from the states

e.       an equal distribution of power between the states and national governments


47. Which of the following governmental bodies is most directly responsible to the electorate?

a. the House of Representatives               b. the Senate                 c. the executive branch

d. the Supreme Court                             e. the bureaucracy


48. The question of the constitutionality of state-imposed term limits of legislators is based on which of the following arguments?

a.       the state’s ability to set time and manner of elections for state office holders

b.       the fact that the Constitution sets the qualifications for Congressmen

c.       the ability of the people to vote directly for senators and representatives

d.       the ability of voters to create term limits for state office holders

e.       the fact that the Congress is scheduled to vote for a term limits amendment to the Constitution


49. The practice of judicial review was first established by which of the following actions?

a.       the Constitution gives life terms to Supreme Court Justices

b.       Justices serve as long as they maintain good behavior

c.       The Supreme Court exercises judicial precedent

d.       The Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction

e.       The Supreme Court can declare a congressional act unconstitutional


50. Which of the following resulted after the Supreme Court made a ruling in Baker v Carr?

a.       The principle of “one man, one vote” was established

b.       Congressional districts became gerrymandered based on political considerations

c.       Congressional districts were created as a result of racial considerations

d.       State legislatures modified existing voting districts for state offices

e.       Congress was able to modify congressional districts in states where there was not equal representation


51. All of the following are considered enumerated powers of Congress EXCEPT

a.       coining United States currency after the Constitution was ratified

b.       establishing inferior courts in addition to the Supreme Court

c.       setting up the first National Bank of the U.S.

d.       establishing uniform immigration laws in the 1920’s

e.       regulating commerce among the several states


52. The implied powers clause in the Constitution has been describes as the ability of Congress to take which of the following actions?

a.       pass an assault weapons ban

b.       withdraw funds allocated to troops in Haiti

c.       pass a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution

d.       raise the price of stamps to 32 cents

e.       passing a law setting quotas for immigrants


53. In addition to the stated powers of the president, which of the following roles does he take on?

a.       acting as titular head of his political party

b.       granting pardons

c.       making treaties

d.       giving a State of the Union address

e.       signing or vetoing legislation


54. Which of the following is the only stated constitutional responsibility of the vice president?

a.       attending funerals of foreign dignitaries

b.       taking on special tasks assigned by the president

c.       presiding over the Senate

d.       filling in for the president when he is out of the country

e.       presiding over the House of Representatives


55. All of the following represent examples of limited government EXCEPT

a.       the application of habeas corpus in criminal appeals

b.       the prohibition of passage of bills of attainder laws

c.       Congress not being allowed to pass ex post facto laws

d.       The inability of the president to grant titles of nobility

e.       The Reserved Power Clause of the 10th Amendment


56. All of the following represent examples of checks and balances EXCEPT

a.       the 35 successful vetoes made by President Bush

b.       the Senate rejection of the League of Nations

c.       the Supreme Court ruling the Flag Desecration Act unconstitutional

d.       Congress passing the Crime Bill after a conference committee made changes

e.       Congress invoking the provisions of the War Powers Act


57. Which of the following actions increases the power of the president?

a.       a greater reliance on the states to solve problems

b.       a greater reliance on the federal government to solve problems

c.       the president having to work with a majority party in Congress different from his own

d.       an increased investigative role by the media

e.       the downsizing of the federal bureaucracy


58. The appointment of Supreme Court Justices in the 1980’s was characterized by

a.       quick approval by the Senate of nominees

b.       rejection of the majority of appointees

c.       limited background checks of the nominees

d.       limited input from legal associations and special interest groups

e.       bitter confirmation battles over personal and philosophical positions of the nominees



Answer Key


39. B                 40. D                 41. B                 42. A                 43.D                  44. C


45. E                 46. C                 47. A                 48. B                 49. E                 50. A


51. C                 52. A                 53. A                 54. C                 55. E                 56. D


57. B                 58. E



The Legislative Branch


59. The chairman of the standing committees of Congress are chosen

a.       by the voters

b.       according to a strict seniority system

c.       by the president

d.       by the leaders of both political parties

e.       by the leaders of the majority party


60. Bills may be introduced in either house of Congress with the exception of ____ bills, which must originate in the House of Representatives.

a. agricultural      b. revenue       c. foreign aid        d. military         e. education


61. Article I grants Congress the power to do all of the following EXCEPT

a.       declare war

b.       collect taxes

c.       appoint federal judges

d.       regulate interstate commerce

e.       establish federal courts


62. The “elastic clause” grants Congress

a.       delegate powers

b.       inherent powers

c.       implied powers

d.       expressed powers

e.       war powers


63. Permanent committees dealing with such matters as agriculture, finance, and foreign policy are know as

a.       select committees

b.       conference committees

c.       joint committees

d.       standing committees

e.       ad hoc committees


64. The House Committee that acts like a “clearing house” for the thousands of bills introduced each term is called the

a.       Rules Committee

b.       Ways and Means Committee

c.       Steering Committee

d.       Legislative Committee

e.       Clearing Committee


65. Constitutional Amendments must pass in both houses of Congress by

a.       simple majority

b.       3/5ths majority

c.       2/3 majority

d.       ¾ majority

e.       unanimous consent


66. Article I, Section 9 prohibits Congress from exercising all of the following powers EXCEPT

a.       the passage of import taxes

b.       the passage of export taxes

c.       the passage of ex post facto laws

d.       the withdrawal of money from the Treasury without an appropriations law

e.       the favored treatment of one port or state over another in matters of commerce


67. The use of the filibuster, a tactic to block the passage of legislation,

a.       has been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court

b.       is allowed in both the House and the Senate

c.       can be ended by a majority vote

d.       was used in the 1950’s and 1960’s to stall civil rights legislation

e.       can be ended by executive order


68. The number of members in the House of Representatives

a.       changes after each national census

b.       was fixed at 435 by the Constitution

c.       is based on an equal number form each house

d.       was fixed at 435 by the Reapportionment Act of 1929

e.       was fixed at 435 by a constitutional amendment


69. The qualifications for members of the House of Representatives are found in Article I of the Constitution.  All of the following are requirements for a House member EXCEPT

a.       must be 25 years old

b.       must be an American citizen for 7 years

c.       must be a resident from the state represented

d.       can be a naturalized citizen

e.       can not serve for more than 2 consecutive terms


70. Which of the following political theories would claim that many senators and representatives come from the upper middle class or the upper economic class of American society?

a. elite      b. pluralist            c. hyperpluralist                  d. centrist             e. majoritarian


71. Which of the following factors generates the most significant advantage for a Congressional candidate?

a.       being wealthier than the opponent

b.       getting the most press coverage

c.       being invited to the most town meetings

d.       being an incumbent

e.       taking positions on key social issues


72. All of the following represent reasons for voters choosing congressional candidates EXCEPT

a.       endorsements by groups who represent different views than the voter

b.       political advertisements

c.       the positions candidates take on key issues

d.       party affiliation of the voter

e.       the candidates positive standing in  political polls


73.   Which of the following functions of senators and representatives would be the most important to their constituents?

a.       attending political fund raisers

b.       networking with lobbyists

c.       accepting PAC money

d.       recommending a high school student to one of the military academies

e.       making a speech about national defense that is printed in the Congressional Record


74. Senators and representatives are often criticized  for making deals with other legislators or the president in order to get programs, projects, and grants moving along the legislative process. What is this legislation called?

a.       constituent laws

b.       rider legislation

c.       logrolling

d.       pork barrel legislation

e.       legislative veto


75. All of the following happened as a result of the Connecticut Compromise agreed to at the Constitutional Convention in 1789 EXCEPT

a.       Congress was made into a bicameral institution

b.       There had to be a minimum of two congressmen for each state

c.       Each state’s representation in the House would be determined by population

d.       Each state was guaranteed to senators

e.       Senators would be elected directly by the people


76. Which of the following represents an indirect consequence of a bicameral legislature?

I.                    Gridlock may take place

II.                  Political compromise can take place

III.                An additional check and balance takes place

IV.                There is usually a tremendous decrease in lawmaking ability

a.       I only

b.       II only

c.       II and III only

d.       II and IV only

e.       I, II, and III only


77. Which of the following House committees is responsible for setting the agenda for legislation coming to the floor?

a.       Rules Committee

b.       Ways and Means Committee

c.       Appropriations Committee

d.       The Policy Committee

e.       The Armed Services Committee


78. Even though the Congress is primarily responsible for legislation, each house also has specific non-legislative responsibilities.  Which of the following represents a specific Senate responsibility different than the House?

I.                    ratifying all treaties

II.                  confirming presidential appointments

III.                trying to impeach officials

IV.                introducing all appropriation legislation

a.       I only

b.       II and III only

c.       IV only

d.       I, II, and III only

e.       I and IV only


79. Which of the following individuals presides over the House of Representatives?

a.       the House minority leader

b.       the House Pro Tem

c.       the House Majority Leader

d.       the Speaker of the House

e.       the House Majority Whip


80. The Speaker of the House has many responsibilities.  All the following reflect roles that the speaker plays EXCEPT

a.       acting as chief presiding officer of the House

b.       serving as third in line in presidential succession

c.       making committee assignments for both houses

d.       playing a key role in appointing committee chairs

e.       working hand in hand with the president relating to the legislative agenda if they are both from the same party


81. All of the following contribute to the success of incumbent members of Congress in election campaigns EXCEPT

a.       incumbents usually raise less campaign funds than do challengers

b.       incumbents tend to understand national issues better than do their challenges

c.       incumbents are usually better known to voters than their challengers

d.       incumbents can use staff to perform services for constituents

e.       incumbents often sit on committees that permit them to serve district interests


82. A member of the House of Representatives who wishes to be influential in the House would most likely seek a place on which of the following committees?

a. Agriculture     b. District of Columbia     c. Public Works and Transportation          d. Rules


83. All of the following are examples of congressional oversight committees EXCEPT

a.       the Banking Committee holding Whitewater hearings

b.       the Select Committee on Campaign Activities to investigate campaign abuses

c.       the House Judiciary Committee’s hearing on the impeachment of President Nixon

d.       the Select Senate Watergate Committee

e.       the Select Iran-Contra Committee


84. Which of the following has INCREASED in Congress over the past 20 years?

I.        the chances of members’ reelection

II.      the influence of committee chairs

III.    the power of subcommittees

IV.    the cost of congressional elections

a.       I  only

b.       I and II only

c.       I, III, and IV only

d.       I, II, and III only

e.       I, II, III, and IV


85. Pork barrel legislation helps the reelection chances of a member of Congress because such legislation

a.       gives the member of Congress national standing and coverage on national television news

b.       helps earn the member of Congress a reputation for service to his or her district

c.       attracts campaign contributions form ideological political action

d.       prevents other candidates from claiming that the member of Congress is too liberal for his or her district

e.       required the member of Congress to travel extensively



Answer Key


59. E                 60. B                 61. C                 62. C                 63. D                 64. A


65. C                 66. A                 67. D                 68. D                 69. E                 70. A


71. D                 72. A                 73. D                 74. C                 75. E                 76. E


77. A                 78. D                 79. D                 80. C                 81. A                 82. D


83. C                 84. E                 85. B



The Executive Branch


86. Characteristics of executive agreements include all of the following EXCEPT

a.       they are similar to treaties

b.       they must be ratified by the Senate

c.       they must be related to treaties previously negotiated

d.       presidents use them to circumvent the Senate

e.       they were used extensively to conduct the war in Vietnam


87. The War Powers Act of 1973

a.       enlarges the president’s power to commit troops to foreign soil

b.       calls for the president to notify Congress within 24 hours of ordering military forces into operation

c.       prohibits the president from leaving troops engaged in combat for more than 30 days without authorization from Congress

d.       had crippled the president’s power to exercise his constitutional military powers

e.       prohibits the president from leaving troops engaged in conflict for more than 60 days without authorization from Congress


88. All of the following are TRUE of the 25th Amendment EXCEPT that

a.       it allows the president to appoint a vice-president if a vacancy exists

b.       it allows the president to  name a successor of his own choice if he leaves office immediately

c.       it provides for the vice-president to serve as acting president if the president is temporarily incapacitated

d.       it was invoked by President Nixon when Vice-President Agnew resigned from office

e.       under its terms Gerald Ford became the fist appointed president


89. The president’s constitutional duties include all of the following EXCEPT

a.       negotiating treaties

b.       granting pardons and reprieves in federal cases

c.       passing legislation

d.       appointing high ranking federal officials

e.       executing the laws


90. Candidates for the offices of president and vice-president

a.       must be at least 30 years of age

b.       must run in all the presidential primaries

c.       must be lifelong residents of the U.S.

d.       must be native-born citizens

e.       must be members of an established political party


91. The Electoral College

a.       functions largely independent of the major political parties

b.       provides for a winner-take-all system of election in all 50 states

c.       requires that the candidate who receives a plurality of the votes will be elected to the office of president

d.       meets continuously until a president is chosen

e.       requires that a candidate receive a majority of 270 electoral votes in order to be elected


92. Which of the following represents reasons why presidents have trouble getting things done?

I.                    Other policymakers have their own agendas and interests

II.                  Other policymakers have their own sources of power

III.                Congress is not to beholden to the president but to other interests

IV.                The influence of special interest groups and lobbyists play a significant role

a.       I only

b.       II only

c.       I and III only

d.       II and IV only

e.       I, II, III, and IV


93. Examples of people on the White House staff include all of the following EXCEPT

a.       the Chief of Staff

b.       the White House Cook

c.       the National Security Advisor

d.       the vice-president

e.       the press secretary


94. Using the bully pulpit refers to a president

a.       using the power and influence of his office to exert pressure

b.       calling upon members of his cabinet to influence legislation

c.       using his veto power to reject legislation

d.       signing a piece of legislation into law

e.       taking a trip to a foreign country to sign a treaty


95. All of the following help to explain the president’s difficulty in controlling agencies EXCEPT

a.       agency officials often have political support from interest groups

b.       agency staff often information and technical expertise that the president and presidential advisers lack

c.       the president can only fire agency appointees if the Senate agrees

d.       civil servants who remain in their jobs through changes of administration develop loyalties to their agencies

e.       Congress often competes for influence over federal agencies


96. Which of the following is responsible for the preparation of executive spending proposals submitted to Congress?

a.       Treasury Department

b.       Council of Economic Advisors

c.       Federal Trade Commission

d.       Department of Commerce

e.       Office of Management and Budget


97. Which of the following methods is/are used by a president who wants to persuade recalcitrant members of Congress to vote for a particular bill?

a.       transfers members who oppose the bill to unpopular committees

b.       denies campaign funds to members who oppose the bill

c.       threatens to deny re-nomination to members who oppose the bill

d.       threatens top veto a different bill that enjoys bipartisan support in Congress

e.       makes a direct appeal to the public


98. Invocation of the War Powers Act of 1973 would be most important in determining

a.       the nature of the commitment of United States Marines to a peacekeeping role in Bosnia

b.       the amount of financial aid to the Contras of Nicaragua

c.       the timing of naval maneuvers off the coast of Libya

d.       the appointment of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

e.       the legality of extraditing foreign agents responsible for acts of terrorism


99. The usefulness to the president of having cabinet members as political advisers is undermined by the fact that

a.       the president has little latitude in choosing cabinet members

b.       cabinet members have little political support independent of the president

c.       cabinet members are usually drawn from Congress and retain loyalties to Congress

d.       the loyalties of cabinet members are often divided between loyalty to the president and loyalty to their own executive departments

e.       the cabinet operates as a collective unit and individual members have limited access to the president


 Answer Key


86. B                 87. E                 88. B                 89. C                 90. D                 91. E                


92. E                 93. D                 94. A                 95. C                 96. E                 97. E


98. A                 99. D


The Judiciary


100. Article III of the Constitution

a.       set up the federal district courts

b.       organized the U.S. Supreme Court

c.       established the legislative courts

d.       set forth the instances in which federal courts have jurisdiction

e.       organized the courts of appeals


101. The dual  court system refers to

a.       the district courts and the federal appeals courts

b.       the constitutional and the legislative courts

c.       civil and criminal courts

d.       the Supreme Court and the U.S. Courts of Appeals

e.       separate federal and state court systems


102. The term stare decisis means

a.       separate but equal

b.       let the decision stand

c.       judicial review

d.       a concurring opinion

e.       original jurisdiction


103. The Supreme Court decides to hear cases on appeal

a.       whenever a state supreme court requests an opinion

b.       in all capital cases

c.       if they address substantial federal issues

d.       if a writ of mandamus is issued

e.       if a writ of certiorari is submitted for consideration


104. The Supreme Court’s jurisdiction encompasses all of the following situations EXCEPT

a.       a case involving an ambassador

b.       review of a federal executive order

c.       review of a piece of federal legislation

d.       a Secret Service agent suspected of internal espionage

e.       a case in which a state is a party


105. The procedure of judicial review was clearly established in

a.       Article III of the Consttitution

b.       Plessy v Ferguson

c.       Marbury v Madison

d.       The Preamble to the Constitution

e.       Brown v Board of Education


106. Judicial authority extends to issues dealing with all of the following EXCEPT

a. common law     b. equity         c. civil law         d. criminal law     e. pending legislation


107. Which of the following represents the best example of a case dealing with original jurisdiction?

a.       a review of New York and New Jersey arguing over property rights related to Ellis Island

b.       an appeal by a convict on death row

c.       a review of the constitutionality of a school district allowing prayer at a graduation ceremony

d.       a review of President Nixon’s decision not to turn over the Watergate tapes to Congress

e.       a review of a federal law mandating affirmative action in industries that have contracts with the government


108.  Which of the following principles does common law rely on?

a.       judicial precedent

b.       contract issues

c.       judicial restraint

d.       habeas corpus

e.       judicial activism


109. Which represents a major reason for the submittal of an amicus curiae brief?

a.       the Court must rely on precedent cases

b.       a friend of the court wishes to provide additional information to the Court

c.       lower courts must provide transcripts of its decisions

d.       the Supreme Court requires related interests in the case to submit briefs

e.       the brief from the petitioner provides amended information about the case


110. Critics of judicial activism feel that which of the consequences result from a court pursuing such a philosophy?

a.       a greater protection of the rights of the accused would occur

b.       an expansion of civil rights for minority groups would take place

c.       the Court would act as a watchdog over the other branches of government

d.       a strengthened federal system would result from the decisions made

e.       precedent should be the determining factor when deciding a case


111. Proponents of judicial restraint make which of the following arguments?

a.       it should be a role of Congress, not the Court, to make policy

b.       the interest of government is not realized by a Court that won’t make crucial decisions

c.       states should not be able to develop their own laws without having to worry about federal court interpretation and interference

d.       the federal system will be strengthened by a court that rules state laws unconstitutional

e.       the court should initiate, not facilitate, judicial precedent


Answer Key


100. D               101. E               102. B               103. C               104. D               105. C


106. E               107. A               108. A               109. B               110. E               111. A


The Federal Bureaucracy


112. The Civil Service System was originally established to

a.       provide jobs for veterans

b.       eliminate the abuses of the spoils system

c.       provide equal opportunities for women and minorities

d.       restrict the political activities of government employees

e.       investigate civil rights abuses


113. In recent years, presidential policy with respect to the federal bureaucracy has been to

a.       favor an increase in the number of workers to cope with the complexity of federal programs

b.       favor significant budget increases to fund new programs

c.       favor a downsizing of the work force

d.       request the creation of new agencies to regulate the transportation industry

e.       request the elimination of the CIA


114. All of the following are TRUE of the administrators of the regulatory commissions EXCEPT

a.       they are appointed by the president

b.       they must be approved by the Senate

c.       they are expected to be non-political in their recommendations

d.       they can be dismissed by the president

e.       they serve for a fixed number of years


115. An advantage that bureaucrats in federal government have over the president in the policy-making process is that bureaucrats

a.       control the budgetary process

b.       have an independence from the president that is guaranteed by the Constitution

c.       find it easier to gather public support than does the president

d.       usually have a continuity of service in the executive branch that the president lacks

e.       usually have better access to the media than does the president


116. Which of the following is the best indicator of the Department of Defense’s yearly budget”

a.       the desire of the chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee

b.       the budget recommendation of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

c.       the rate of increase of the size of the armed forces

d.       the number of bases being closed

e.       the size of the budget from the year before


117. The theoretical bureaucratic structure includes all of the following EXCEPT

a.       a hierarchical authority structure

b.       a spoils system

c.       extensive rules

d.       standard operating procedures

e.       a division of labor


118. Many contemporary politicians have come to see bureaucracies as

a.       agencies that aim to make realistic recommendations that may result in lower budgets than the year before

b.       agencies whose main objective is to seek profits

c.       agencies whose major goal is to cut back on their powers

d.       agencies who strive to maximize their budgets and powers

e.       agencies who work more closely with the judiciary


119. According to some political scientists, which policy-making group is largely responsible for the growth of modern government?

a.       bureaucracies

b.       Congress

c.       The president

d.       Private business

e.       The courts


120. All of the following are characteristics of the independent regulatory agency EXCEPT that

a.       it has a responsibility for some sector of the economy

b.       it makes rules designed to protect the public interest

c.       it enforces rules designed to protect the public interest

d.       it powers are so great that it is often called the “fourth branch of the government”

e.       it is exempt from court rulings


121. Bureaucratic policy implementation includes all of the following EXCEPT

a.       the ability of the agency to abolish a nonfunctioning department in another agency

b.       the ability of the agency to create new operating procedures within its own agency

c.       the ability of the agency to assign new responsibilities within its own agency

d.       the ability of an agency to translate policy goals into operational rules for its own personnel

e.       the ability of an agency to coordinate its own resources and personnel to achieve intended goals


122. Administrative regulations contain all of the following elements EXCEPT

a.       a grant of power and a set of directions from Congress

b.       a set of rules and guidelines by the regulatory agency itself

c.       power granted to the Justice Department to enforce heavy sanctions, including abolishing the agency

d.       a means of enforcing compliance with congressional goals and agency regulations

e.       a set of penalties for noncompliance


123. When a president tries to control a bureaucratic agency, all of the following methods are available to him EXCEPT

a.       appointing the right people to head the agency

b.       reducing the agency’s budget

c.       issuing executive orders to counteract agency policies

d.       recommending a reduction of the agency’s budget the following year

e.       using his office to influence agency direction


124. Which of the following results with iron triangle relationships?

a.       each policy being made independently of the others

b.       policies being made that are contradictory to others

c.       a lack of an integrated, coherent approach to broad policy problems

d.       a cooperative relationship among the bureaucratic agencies making policy

e.       a hostile relationship among the bureaucratic agencies making policy



Answer Key


112. B               113. C               114. D               115. D               116. E               117. B


118. D               119. A               120. E               121. A               122. C               123. B


124. D


Political Parties


125. An important characteristic of American political parties is the fact that they

a.       are highly organized

b.       function independently of the federal system

c.       largely bypass local control

d.       are highly decentralized

e.       enforce strict policies concerning membership and participation


126. America’s first political parties were

a.       Democratic Party and Republican Party

b.       Whig Party and Democratic Party

c.       National Republican Party and Federalist Party

d.       Democratic-Republican Party and Federalist Party

e.       Federalist Party and Whig Party


127. With reverence to political parties, the Constitution

a.       provided a general framework for their development

b.       made no mention of them

c.       provided a detailed plan for their organization

d.       specified Congress to be organized along party lines

e.       had to be amended to allow for their development


128. One characteristic NOT associated with the major American political parties is

a.       a clear division between liberals and conservatives as seen in their affiliation with different parties

b.       their ability to resist third party threats

c.       their ability to cope with changing economic and social forces

d.       the cyclical nature of their popularity and effectiveness

e.       their evolution from the division within Washington’s first Cabinet


129. A type of election that encourages voters to support weak candidates is the

a.       open primary

b.       closed primary

c.       crossover primary

d.       “off year” election

e.       party caucus


130. All of the following are functions of political parties EXCEPT

a.       communicating with the electorate

b.       getting its message to the media

c.       operating as an organization

d.       establishing its role in government

e.       recruiting members from the bureaucracy


131. Which of the following translate inputs from the public into outputs from the policymakers?

a.       linkage institutions

b.       bureaucratic institutions

c.       agenda setters

d.       policy setters

e.       policy coordinators


132. In the long history of the American party system, successful parties rarely stray from

a.       a solid conservative foundation

b.       a slightly liberal point of view

c.       a slightly conservative point of view

d.       the midpoint of public opinion

e.       a reactionary point of view


133. Which of the following best describes the nature of American political parties?

a.       America is a one-party system with two branches

b.       American is a multi-party system

c.       Two parties have always dominated

d.       American has always had a three-party system with the third party rarely having an impact on the two major parties

e.       American political parties are dominated by extreme ideology


134. Which of the following results after a critical election occurs?

a.       redistricting

b.       party realignment

c.       party dealignment

d.       gerrymandering

e.       coalition division


135. Which of the following choices helps shape the self-proclaimed preference for one or the other party?

a.       ideology

b.       identification

c.       socialization

d.       dealignment

e.       realignment


136. All of the following actions represent the conventional manner people usually participate in the political process EXCEPT

a.       registering to vote

b.       participating in civil disobedience to achieve political goals

c.       joining a specific political party

d.       attending political meetings

e.       voting in elections



Answer Key


125. D               126. D               127. B               128. A               129. C               130. E


131. A               132. D               133. C               134. B               135. A               136. B


Interest Groups


137. Which of the following is an example of a single interest group?

a.       National Right to Life Committee

b.       Greenpeace

c.       National Education Association

d.       American Medical Association

e.       National Organization for Women


138. All of the following are legitimate functions of registered lobbyists EXCEPT

a.       testifying at public hearings

b.       providing members of Congress with statistical data

c.       preparing reports

d.       presenting media spots

e.       nominating candidates for political office


139. Political Action Committees

a.       have roots that originated in the 19th century

b.       have declined in popularity in recent years

c.       may contribute up to $1000 a year to a political candidate

d.       may accept contributions of up to $5000 from individuals

e.       may make unlimited contributions to political candidates


140. The principal function of a pressure group is to

a.       provide campaign money to candidates for public office who favor its programs

b.       draw media attention to its cause

c.       obtain favorable policies from government for the cause it supports

d.       win congressional seats for its members

e.       accomplish all the above


141. An interest group is most likely to have influence in Congress with which of the following situations?

a.       an issue that is narrow in scope and low in public visibility

b.       an issue that is part of the president’s legislative package

c.       an issue that has been highly dramatized by the media

d.       an issue that engages legislators’ deeply held convictions

e.       an issue that divides legislators along party lines


142. All of the following statements concerning interest groups are TRUE EXCEPT

a.       interest groups are policy experts

b.       interest groups attempt to appeal to a broad spectrum of political interests

c.       interest groups often run their own candidates for public office

d.       interest groups lobby different levels of government

e.       interest groups have specific policy goals


143. Many political scientists believe that in general, lobbyists

a.       exhibit dishonest techniques as a rule of behavior

b.       display few honest dealing with those they try to influence

c.       undermine the legislative process

d.       present a serious problem for the legislative process

e.       are generally looked upon favorable by the American public


144. All of the following arguments are essential to the special interest theory of politics EXCEPT

a.       interest groups compete with each other

b.       interest groups provide linkage between people and government

c.       one or two interest groups may dominate the debate over legislation

d.       interest groups attempt to open their membership to many diverse groups

e.       interest groups have been protected by Supreme Court decisions


145. Which of the following represents a major reason for the proliferation of special interests and lobby groups?

a.       the reactive nature of interest groups and lobbyists to new issues

b.       the increase in donations received by interest groups from their members

c.       the trust citizens have in the legislative process

d.       the ability of lobbyists and special interest groups to get members from their won group to run for political office

e.       the increasing demand for campaign reform


146. A significant amount of PAC money most likely goes to

a.       candidates challenging Republican seats

b.       candidates challenging Democratic seats

c.       candidates who are new to the political scene

d.       candidates who have a wide philosophical differences with the PAC

e.       candidates who hold incumbent status


147. Which of the following statements represents a major criticism of lobbyists?

a.       they work closely with the interest groups that hired them

b.       they are former government officials who have close ties with current legislators

c.       they are persistent in making sure that the results they get do not change before a vote

d.       they know as much and sometimes even more than legislators about pending legislation

e.       they attempt to convince senators and representatives that if they support their position they will receive the support of their constituency


148. The major impact of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974 was that

a.       it eliminated lobbyist gifts and vacations for legislators

b.       it set strict contribution limitations for congressional campaigns

c.       it created matching funds for congressional campaigns

d.       it legitimized and increased the number of interest groups

e.       it created strict registration procedures for lobbyists


Answer Key


137. A               138. E               139. D               140. C               141. A               142. C


143. D               144. D               145. A               146. E               147. B               148. D




Nominations, Campaigns, Elections, and Voting Behavior


149. Before primaries existed, state parties selected their delegates to the national convention at which of the following?

a. caucus           b. referendum      c. roundtable     d. smoke filled room       e. party king-makers


150. Criticisms of the election process include all of the following EXCEPT

a.       disproportionate attention goes to the early caucuses

b.       disproportionate attention goes to the early primaries

c.       money plays too big of a role

d.       the system allows little room for media involvement

e.       participation in the primaries is low and not representative of the entire electorate


151. In order to organize their presidential campaigns effectively, a candidate must do all of the following EXCEPT

a.       line up a campaign manager who is skilled

b.       get a fund raiser that raises significant money

c.       hire a pollster who knows how to choose focus groups

d.       announce his/her choice for vice-president before the convention

e.       get positive media exposure


152. If presidential candidates accept federal support in the form of matching campaign financing, then they

a.       are no longer required to disclose their contributions

b.       agree to limit their campaign expenditures to an amount prescribed by federal law

c.       no longer have any limit to their campaign expenditures

d.       are no longer required to disclose how they spend their money

e.       no longer can accept PAC money


153. Presidential candidates must file periodic reports with the Federal Election Commission, listing who contributed money and how it was spent

a.       if they receive matching federal funding

b.       if they did not receive matching federal funding

c.       regardless of whether or not they receive matching federal funds

d.       only if their contributions top one million dollars

e.       if they receive an kind of PAC money


154. Which of the following concerns most bothers politicians about the rising costs of campaigning?

a.       they are forced to accept money from PACs that they may not agree with

b.       fund-raising takes up so much of their time

c.       they don’t feel that they are getting their money’s worth from high priced media consultants

d.       they don’t believe the high-tech campaigns achieve results

e.       they don’t feel that political advertisements achieve results


155. All of the following factors tend to weaken a candidate’s chances for election EXCEPT

a.       being a challenger to an experienced incumbent

b.       not using political advertisements

c.       recognizing that people have a remarkable capacity for selective perception

d.       recognizing that party identification has a major influence on voting behavior

e.       raising large amounts of money


156. Which of the following provides voters the chance to directly approve or disapprove a legislative proposition?

a.       a recall petition

b.       a secondary primary

c.       a referendum

d.       a run-off primary

e.       an indirect primary


157. All of the following statements about campaign strategy are true EXCEPT

a.       the candidate must target the campaign

b.       the candidate must take advantage of political assets

c.       the candidate must campaign in all 50 states

d.       the candidate must use issues and events to his or her advantage

e.       the candidate must use the campaign organization


158. The least important agent in molding public opinion among the young would probably be

a.       older family members

b.       school curriculum

c.       peer group members

d.       socio-economic groups

e.       religious role models


159. Media influence on the formation of public opinion had been criticized for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

a.       oversimplification of complicated issues

b.       reducing major speeches to brief sound bites

c.       biased presentations

d.       heightening general interest in public issues

e.       focusing on the trivial and the sensational


160. All of the following are characteristics of public opinion EXCEPT

a.       it reflects the attitudes of a majority of the population

b.       it involves attitudes about public issues

c.       it influences the decisions of public officials

d.       it is measured by pollsters

e.       it is an important component of any society


161. Both the Democratic and Republican Parties

a.       appeal mainly to conservative voters

b.       appeal principally to liberals

c.       are based on clearly defined ideologies

d.       usually embrace a moderate approach to solving society’s problems

e.       eschew a pragmatic approach to problem-solving


162. Which of the following generalizations is TRUE of the American electorate?

a.       voter indifference is always an indication of dissatisfaction with public officials

b.       participation in the political process is on the rise

c.       party identification is insignificant in explaining why Americans vote as they do

d.       some voters use a “litmus test” with reference to a single critical issue to determine whom they will support

e.       young people vote in large numbers because they have a comparatively greater amount of free time than middle aged voters


163. Which of the following factors is probably most significant in determining how an individual will vote in a presidential election?

a. occupation     b. income level      c. party loyalty            d. geography       e. religion


164. Which class of people has the highest political efficacy?

a.       middle class

b.       lower class

c.       upper class

d.       upper middle class

e.       political efficacy has no relation to class


165. Which of the following is a direct result of media-centered politics?

a.       an increase on the hold of the electorate by the party

b.       a decrease on the hold of the electorate by the party

c.       an increase in voter turnout

d.       a distrust of the media

e.       an increase by the media in the analysis of issues


166. All of the following are criticisms aimed at the media EXCEPT

a.       the media defines the campaign agenda rather than the candidate

b.       the media accepts too many negative advertisements

c.       the media relies too much on polling

d.       the media’s investigations of politicians usually emphasize serious issues

e.       talk radio places an unfair emphasis on conservative issues


167. All of the following statements explains why people vote EXCEPT

a.       people vote because of their religious views

b.       people vote as a result of political socialization

c.       people vote as a result of gender politics

d.       people vote because they are give a survey by a polling organization

e.       people vote because of issues raised in the campaign


168. When studying voting behavior, all the recent conclusions have been found to be true EXCEPT

a.       voting is a class based activity

b.       young people have the highest turnout rate

c.       whites vote with greater frequency than members of minority groups

d.       Southerners do less voting than Northerners

e.       Women voters tend to support candidates with views of their own regardless of whether the candidate is a man or woman


169. The Motor Voter Act signed by President Clinton makes it easier than ever to vote.  All of the following provisions accomplish the goals of the act EXCEPT

a.       it provides for automatic registration of eligible citizens when they fill out an application for a driver’s license

b.       it requires that states periodically review their voter lists for accuracy

c.       it authorizes fifty million dollars to help cover implementation costs

d.       it purges people from the voter rolls because they didn’t vote in the previous election

e.       it provides for automatic registration of eligible voters as a result of license renewal


170. It has been shown in recent elections that during times of severe economic troubles, the electorate

a.       do not vote as often as they do during good times

b.       tend to vote out incumbents

c.       tend to vote incumbents back in

d.       are more likely to vote in congressional races than the presidential race

e.       register in large numbers


171. The validity of a poll is best determined by

a.       a sample that represents more than half of the people in a population polled

b.       a large gap between the time the poll is taken and the time the results are released

c.       partisan groups taking and reporting the results of the poll

d.       complex questions to be answered by the people being polled

e.       a sampling error of those polled under 5 percent


Answer Key


149. A               150. D               151. D               152. B               153. C               154. B


155. E               156. C               157. C               158. C               159. D               160. A


161. D               162. D               163. C               164. C               165. B               166. D


167. B               168. B               169. D               170. B               171. E


Civil Rights and Civil Liberties


172. The First Amendment protects all of the following freedoms EXCEPT

a.       freedom of religion

b.       freedom of choice

c.       freedom of the press

d.       freedom of speech

e.       freedom of assembly


173. Jefferson’s reference to “unalienable rights” in the Declaration of Independence” relates to

a.       laws passed by Parliament

b.       laws passed by colonial legislatures

c.       laws that did not protect aliens

d.       traditions of the Enlightenment

e.       rights that can not be legally taken away


174. When creating the Constitution, the Founding Fathers did not include a bill of rights because

a.       the Anti-Federalists opposed such a bill

b.       they had too many other issues to consider

c.       they were unsure of what to include

d.       they believed such a bill was unnecessary because the states already had such protections

e.       James Madison lobbied against such a bill


175. The Fifth Amendment guarantees all of the following legal protections EXCEPT

a.       freedom from double jeopardy

b.       freedom from being compelled to testify against oneself

c.       freedom from cruel and unusual punishment

d.       indictment by a grand jury

compensation for land taken by eminent domain


176. States are now prohibited from infringing upon the rights protected by the federal Bill of Rights because of

a.       an executive order issued by President Washington

b.       a provision in the Fourteenth Amendment

c.       legislative action by the first Congress

d.       an introduction to the document which mandates it

e.       their state constitutions which require it


177. The Gideon, Escobedo, and Miranda cases all concerned which of the following issues?

a.       school prayer

b.       saluting the flag

c.       the rights of the accused

d.       eminent domain

e.       freedom of speech


178. A case which expanded the concept of symbolic speech to include wearing armbands in protest was

a.       Tinker v Des Moines

b.       Engle v Vitale

c.       Abington Township v Schempp

d.       Mapp v Ohio

e.       Bakke v Regents


179. The significance of the Gitlow case was that it

a.       affirmed the right of a Socialist to make inflammatory speeches

b.       mandated the state governments uphold the provisions of the federal Bill of Rights

c.       interpreted the death penalty as cruel and unusual punishment

d.       upheld the constitutionality of the exclusionary rule

e.       outlawed reverse discrimination


180. In the Korematsu case (1944), the Supreme Court

a.       declared the Japanese relocation to be unlawful

b.       declared that U.S. citizens of Japanese origin be exempted from the relocation order

c.       upheld the measure as reasonable in wartime

d.       ruled that Japanese resident of the West Coast were entitled to equal protection

e.       ruled that reverse discrimination was a major factor in the decision


181. Which of the following decisions made by Chief Justice Marshall’s Court established the principle that the Bill of Rights only applied to the federal government?

a.       Marbury v Madison

b.       McCulloch v Maryland

c.       Gibbons v Ogden

d.       Barron v Baltimore

e.       Fletcher v Peck


182. The establishment clause of the First Amendment speaks of

a.       an officially sanctioned nonsectarian religion for the U.S.

b.       a wall of separation between church and state

c.       government not being able to accommodate religion in public places

d.       government agencies creating watchdog committees to prevent religious infringement in the schools

e.       the passage of the equal access law


183. Which of the following Supreme Court Cases established the “clear and present danger” doctrine?

a.       Schenck v United States

b.       Texas v Johnson

c.       Chaplinsky v New Hampshire

d.       Abrahams v New York

e.       Tinker v Des Moines


184. The terms prior review and prior restraint refer to which of the following constitutional principles?

a.       freedom of the press

b.       freedom of speech

c.       freedom of assembly

d.       due process

e.       freedom to petition one’s grievances


185. The Lemon Test is used to determine if

a.       there is unfair government interference regarding free speech

b.       the government is acting properly in due process cases

c.       there are illegal tactics used by PAC’s

d.       death penalty convictions are fair and reasonable

e.       legislation that deals with religion creates illegal government interference


186. The principle established in the Supreme Court case of Texas v Johnson was based on

a.       religious speech

b.       active speech

c.       symbolic speech

d.       fighting words

e.       government accommodation of speech


187. In the case of Mapp v Ohio, the Supreme Court established

a.       the exclusionary rule of evidence

b.       the fighting words doctrine

c.       the bad tendency doctrine

d.       the prurient interest principle

e.       the stop and frisk rule of evidence


188. All of the following steps are part of procedural due process EXCEPT

a.       habeas corpus

b.       formal indictment

c.       speedy trial

d.       right to an attorney

e.       a jury made up of different ethnic groups


189. Which of the following historical events furthered the intent of the 14th Amendment?

a.       passage of Jim Crow Laws

b.       passage of black codes

c.       passage of grandfather voting laws

d.       passage of literacy voting tests

e.       passage of civil rights acts


190. Which of the following judicial principles reduced the impact of the 14th Amendment?

a.       separate but equal

b.       all deliberate speed

c.       equal protection under the law

d.       privileges and immunities of the people

e.       habeas corpus


191. All of the following criteria were used to establish the nationalization of the 14th Amendment EXCEPT

a.       reasonable classification of race

b.       a rational basis test

c.       a strict scrutiny test

d.       the suspect class test

e.       the police power of the states


192. Which of the following represents a legal difference between de facto and de jure segregation?

a.       defacto segregation has been made illegal

b.       de jure segregation is legal

c.       de jure segregation is illegal based on Supreme Court decisions

d.       de facto segregation is supported by real estate agents

e.       de facto segregation was overturned by the Plessy v Ferguson decision


193. Which of the following constitutional provisions has been used to strike down discrimination in public accommodations?

a.       10th Amendment’s reserve powers clause

b.       Article I Section 8’s commerce clause

c.       First Amendment’s right to assemble

d.       Affirmative action laws

e.       Fifteenth Amendment’s suffrage clause


194. A major impact of the Bakke decisions was

a.       racial quotas were legal

b.       racial preferences for minority groups was unacceptable

c.       reverse discrimination based on quotas were illegal

d.       affirmative action programs sponsored by the government were illegal

e.       affirmative action programs sponsored by the states were illegal


195. All of the following  criteria represent procedures used for evaluating the legitimacy of affirmative action programs EXCEPT

a.       a scrutiny test based on racial classification

b.       affirmative action programs based strictly on quotas

c.       states taking action based on evidence that past discriminatory practice existed

d.       affirmative action remedies must be based on specific remedies

e.       affirmative action programs must be based on narrowly tailored principles


196. Which of the following furthered the cause of civil rights for women?

I.                    the Brandies Brief submitted in the case of Muller v Oregon

II.                  Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

III.                Decisions of the Court regarding the issue of comparable worth

IV.                Medium scrutiny standards established in judicial decisions

a.       I only

b.       II only

c.       II and III only

d.       I, II, and III only

e.       II, III, and IV only


197. Which of the following cases helped further civil rights for students?

a.       Tinker v Des Moines

b.       Hazelwook v Kuhlmeir

c.       New Jersey v TLO

d.       Bethel v Frasier

e.       Cleveland Board of Education v Lafleur


198. Discrimination in the workplace has been made illegal by all of the following EXCEPT

a.       Civil Rights Act of 1964

b.       Supreme Court decision in Craig v Boren

c.       Supreme Court decision in Dothard v Rawlinson

d.       Supreme Court decision in UAW v Johnson

e.       Passage of Proposition 187


Answer Key


172. B               173. E               174. D               175. C               176. B               177. C


178. A               179. B               180. C               181. D               182. B               183. A


184. B               185. E               186. C               187. A               188. E               189. E


190. A               191. E               192. C               193. B               194. C               195. B


196. E               197. A               198. E


The Economy and The Federal Budget


199. Traditionally, the Republican Party has been viewed as favoring which of the following groups?

a.       big business

b.       the poor

c.       the middle class

d.       African-Americans

e.       Hispanics


200. Traditionally, the Democratic Party has been known as

a.       supporters of a tax-and-spend philosophy

b.       supply-siders

c.       believers of trickle-down economics

d.       advocates of anti-regulation of the economy

e.       proponents of repeal of capital gains taxes


201. All of the following items are measures of the nation’s economy EXCEPT

a.       the nation’s unemployment rate

b.       the rise or fall of the Consumer Price Index

c.       the amount of growth or decline in the Gross National Product

d.       the amount of taxes corporations pay to the federal government

e.       the rise and fall of the Gross Domestic Product


202. Which of the following economic policies reflects imposed government economic mandates?

a.       distributive economic policy

b.       regulatory policy

c.       redistributive economic policy

d.       supply-side economic policy

e.       stimulus programs passed by Congress


203. Which of the following strategies results in government giving benefits directly to people?

a.       distributive economic policy

b.       regulatory policy

c.       redistributive economic policy

d.       increased government regulations

e.       increasing the personal income tax


204. Which of the following strategies results in government taking money from one segment of the society and giving it back to a group in need?

a.       distributive economic policy

b.       regulatory policy

c.       redistributive economic policy

d.       increasing research and development opportunities for business

e.       increasing price supports


205. A primary way that the Federal Reserve regulates the money supply is when it

a.       votes to increase taxes

b.       votes to decrease taxes

c.       adjusts the discount rate

d.       adjusts the rate of inflation

e.       votes to increase price supports


206. Supply-side economists urge

a.       government stimulation of the economy

b.       increased government spending for social programs

c.       increased government borrowing of money

d.       large tax cuts by the government

e.       an increase of the management of the economy by the government


207. Which of the following industries had major economic problems as a result of government deregulation?

a.       the airline industry

b.       the telephone company

c.       the savings and loans

d.       the railroad industry

e.       the cable television industry


208. Which of the following functions is given specific constitutional power of the purse?

a.       Office of Management and Budget

b.       President

c.       Congress

d.       Special interest groups

e.       Executive agencies


209. If Congress does not pass a budget by the beginning of the fiscal year, then which of the following takes place?

a.       The president can impose a budget to keep the government running

b.       The Courts can step in and create a temporary budget

c.       The Congress must pass a continuing resolution

d.       Government offices are automatically shut down

e.       A contingency budget goes into effect


210.. The federal government may borrow money from all of the following EXCEPT

a.       trust funds

b.       foreign investors

c.       commercial banks

d.       money market funds

e.       the Untied States Treasury


211. Which of the following components was part of President Reagan’s 1961tax bill?

a.       a significant increase in the number of tax deductions allowed

b.       a decrease in the number of tax brackets

c.       a decrease in the deficit

d.       a larger tax cut for the lower class than the upper class

e.       an increase in the capital gains tax


212. Over the past 20 years, which of the following areas has shown the greatest increase in budgetary spending?

a.       the defense budget

b.       federal operations

c.       federal grants

d.       discretionary spending

e.       entitlements


213. Which of the following gives the federal government the greatest amount of income?

a.       income taxes

b.       Social Security and payroll taxes

c.       Corporate taxes

d.       Luxury taxes

e.       Money collected from tariffs


214. All of the following are attempts at lowering the nation’s deficit EXCEPT

a.       the attempt to pass a balanced budget constitutional amendment

b.       a change in the welfare system forcing people to work

c.       the proposal to institute means testing in order to get Social Security

d.       the proposal to institute means testing fort Medicare

e.       the creation of the National Service Program


215. According to many pollsters, a defining event that voters remembered during the 1992 presidential campaign was

a.       President Bush’s no new tax pledge

b.       President Bush’s handling the Gulf War

c.       President Bush’s success in vetoing Democratic spending proposals

d.       President Bush’s proclamation that the cold war was over

e.       President Bush’s agreements with Russia to destroy nuclear arsenals


Answer Key


199. A               200. A               201.D                202. B               203. A               204. C


205. C               206. D               207. C               208. C               209. C               210. E


211. B               212. E               213. A               214. E               215. A


Public Policy: Domestic and Foreign


216. Which of the following is TRUE about a class based-society?

a.       disparity in the distribution of income and wealth

b.       narrowing of the gap between the wealthy and middle classes

c.       increase in what the government determines to be an austere standard of living

d.       reduction of the culture of poverty in the United States

e.       move toward “workfare” rather than welfare


217. Liberals claim that a culture of poverty is caused by

a.       government attempts to find solutions to the problem

b.       the value system of the poor

c.       long-term abuses of society

d.       the poor taking advantage of government programs

e.       the success of minority assimilation into the work force


218. Which of the following represents the main difference between a progressive income tax and a proportional income tax?

a.       A progressive tax collects less money from the rich than the poor, whereas a proportional tax collects more from the rich

b.       A progressive tax collects more money from the rich than the poor, whereas a proportional tax is regressive

c.       A progressive tax collects more money from the rich than the poor, whereas a proportional tax collects the same

d.       A progressive tax collects the same amount of money from both the rich and the poor, whereas a proportional tax collects more from the rich

e.       A progressive tax has different brackets for different income earners, whereas a proportional tax has a greater number of brackets


219. Which of the following is an example of a contributory entitlement program?

a.       Supplemental Security Income

b.       Aid to Families with Dependent Children

c.       Social Security

d.       Welfare

e.       Food stamps


220. Listed below are the different eras that describe the history of social policy in America:

I.                    safety net era

II.                  state-sponsored era

III.                block grant era

IV.                federal era

Which is the Correct chronological order?

a.       I, II, III, IV

b.       II, III, I, IV

c.       IV, III, II, I

d.       II, IV, I, III

e.       III, II, I, IV


221. The programs of the New Deal are examples of

a.       the safety net

b.       the state sponsored era

c.       the federal era

d.       grant blocks to states

e.       the New Federalism


222. Which of the following philosophies was behind the attempt to create a safety net for individuals?

a.       Federal government would be in the forefront to aid citizens

b.       State governments would be given block grants to help citizens

c.       The federal and state governments would share the costs equally

d.       Private businesses would provide benefits

e.       Even with federal government cutbacks, there would still be an assurance that people in need would receive benefits


223. All of the following were recommendations of the National Commission on Social Security Reform EXCEPT

a.       rescheduling previously approved increases in Social Security payroll taxes

b.       a means test for senior citizens over the age of 65 to determine their eligibility to receive benefits

c.       gradually increasing the age when an individual could first receive Social Security benefits

d.       requiring federal employees to contribut5e to the Social Security System

e.       taxing a portion of the Social Security benefits for those people with incomes over $20,000


224. Which of the following welfare proposals were passed into law in 1996?

I.                    workfare

II.                  additional income benefits

III.                the denial of welfare to legal immigrants

IV.                increased block grants to the states

a.       I only

b.       I and III only

c.       II and IV only

d.       I, II, and III

e.       I, III, and IV


225.  All of the following are special interest environmental groups EXCEPT

a.       Audubon Society

b.       National Association of Manufacturers

c.       Greenpeace

d.       Sierra Club

e.       Wilderness Society


226. The main purpose of the National Environmental Policy Act was to

a.       Require government agencies to issue environmental impact statements if their policies would have a negative impact on the environment

b.       require the Environmental Protection Agency to monitor clean air standards

c.       establish clean water standards

d.       establish a superfund to clean up environmental abuses

e.       require the Department of the Interior to establish criteria for ocean dumping


227. The Superfund was originally enacted in response to which of the following events?

a.       the oil spill caused by the grounding of the Exxon Valdez

b.       the nuclear meltdown at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant

c.       toxic and chemical dumping at the Love Canal

d.       the nuclear catastrophe at Chernobyl

e.       the dismantling of the Shoreham nuclear plant


228. All of the following choices represent features of the Clean Air Act of 1990 EXCEPT

a.       it established standards to protect the ozone layer

b.       it set overall carbon dioxide standards

c.       it established standards to attack the acid rain problem

d.       it directed factories to reduce emissions

e.       it directed auto manufacturers top sell electric cars


229. Which of the following choices was a major consequence of United States' reliance on nonrenewable resources during Middle East tensions?

a.       It made the U.S. less dependent on the Middle East

b.       Texas, Oklahoma, and Louisiana were able to meet the demand for energy

c.       OPEC decided to reduce exports

d.       The U.S. decided to turn to nuclear energy as a primary energy source

e.       The US's use of hydroelectric sources increased


230. Which of the following was created as a result of the Energy Reorganization Act?

a.       Nuclear Regulatory Commission

b.       Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

c.       Department of Energy

d.       a Superfund for energy

e.       the continued operation of the Tennessee Valley Authority


231. Which of the following congressional actions took place the same year as the first Earth Day in 1970?

a.       the creation of the Department of Health and Human Services

b.       the passage of the Clean Air Act

c.       the passage of the Clean Water Act

d.       the creation of the Superfund

e.       the passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act


232. Which of the following is considered the main environmental regulatory agency?

a.       Energy Department

b.       Council of Environmental Quality

c.       Commerce Department

d.       Environmental Protection Agency

e.       Interior Department


233. In 1994, the Supreme Court considered the constitutionality of the Endangered Species Act.  Which of the following issues did environmentalists support?

I.                    property rights of land developers

II.                  potential harm to animals

III.                potential harm to water

IV.                potential harm to the air

a.       I only

b.       II only

c.       II and III only

d.       III and IV only

e.       II, III, and IV only


234. Which of the following proposals that have an impact on the environment was made by the Republicans after they won a majority in the House of Representatives in 1994?

a.       the passage of anti-regulatory legislation

b.       the institution of increased federal funds for the environment

c.       the passage of a global treaty protecting the tropical rain forest

d.       the passage of legislation that would increase federal mandates

e.       the abolition of the Environmental Protection Agency


235. Since the end of the Cold War, which of the following foreign policy goals do conservatives generally support the most?

a.       addressing threats to the United States national security

b.       giving aid to foreign countries

c.       securing a favorable balance of trade through international trade agreements

d.       getting involved in UN peacekeeping missions under UN control

e.       achieving worldwide arms reduction


236. Who made the following statement?  "the great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is, in extending our commercial relations to have them as little political connection as possible…steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world."

a.       George Washington in his farewell address

b.       Abraham Lincoln in his Gettysburg Address

c.       Theodore Roosevelt as a rough rider

d.       Franklin Roosevelt in an address to Congress prior to World War II

e.       John Kennedy in his 1961 inaugural speech


237. The late 19th and early 20th centuries were characterized by

a.       isolationism

b.       neutrality

c.       containment

d.       imperialism

e.       confrontationalism


238. Which of the following foreign policy treaties was rejected by the Senate?

a.       League of Nations

b.       United Nations

c.       Kellogg-Briand Treaty

d.       Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty

e.       NATO alliance


239. Which of the following were a corollary to the policy of containment?

I.                    domino theory

II.                  brinkmanship 

III.                 détente

IV.                neutrality

a.       I only

b.       II only

c.       I and II only

d.       III and IV only

e.       I, II, and III only


240. All of the following foreign events took place during Nixon's administration EXCEPT

a.       a visit to mainland China

b.       negotiating an end to the Vietnam War

c.       the signing of the War Powers Act

d.       the signing of the SALT Treaty

e.       following a policy of détente with the Soviet Union


241. Which of the following Reagan foreign policy programs cam about in response to his characterization of the Soviet Union as "the evil empire"?

a.       Star Wars Initiative

b.       Intermediate Nuclear Force Treaty

c.       SALT II Treaty

d.       aid to the Contras

e.       U.S. invasion of Grenada


242. Which of the following best describes the principles of the new world order?

I.                    isolationism

II.                  internationalism

III.                mutual defense treaties

IV.                humanitarianism

a.       I only

b.       II only

c.       II and III only

d.       III and IV only

e.       II, III, and IV only


243. In the debate of "guns vs. butter", those arguing for guns point to

a.       the increase of the size of the deficit

b.       the need to maintain U.S. priorities as the last superpower

c.       the easy transition of defense industries to other industries

d.       the increasing involvement of the United Nations in peacekeeping activities

e.       the increased role of NATO in world affairs


244. Which of the following represents the central feature of Clinton's partnership for peace?

a.       the abolition of NATO

b.       the invitation to the former Warsaw Pact countries to join NATO

c.       the merger of NATO and the European Economic Community

d.       the invitation to Russia to join NATO as a full member

e.       the merger of NATO, SEATO, and OAS


245. Which of the following is a major aim of GATT and NAFTA?

a.       to break down international trade barriers

b.       to regulate the international monetary exchange rate

c.       to provide monetary assistance to third-world countries

d.       to create a common currency among member nations

e.       to coordinate labor and immigration policies among member nations


Answer Key


216. A               217 C                218. C               219. C               220. D               221. C


222. E               223. B               224. E               225. B               226. A               227. C


228. E               229. C               230. A               231. B               232. D               233. E


234. A               235. A               236. A               237. D               238. A               239. C


240. C               241. A               242. E               243. B               244. B               245.


Sample Timed Writes

 The following Sample Timed-Writes were taken from past released timed writes and from other sources.  You should create answer strategies, outline-like answer preparations, to prepare for the final writing answer. . This is the same strategy you should use on the AP Exam.   Keep in mind what the question is asking.  If it asks to describe three “whatevers”, you must describe three.  If you don’t, you lose points.  If you are asked to give two examples, give them.  NEVER ASSUME ANYTING WHEN ANSWERING A TIMED WRITE.  DEMONSTRIATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE.  NEVER ASSUME THE READER CAN FIGURE OUT A CONCEPT.  SAY IT ON PAPER AND LEAVE NO DOUBT IN THE READER’S MIND  As previously stated, it is OK to list, describe, or give examples of more than asked.  But keep in mind the time limits allocated for each.  You are given points for correct answers.  You do not receive extra bonus points for additional information you give if you have satisfactorily answered the question. You are simply covering yourself in case one of your responses is not correct or acceptable.















1.  Using the map above and your knowledge of United States Politics, perform the following tasks:

(a) Summarize what the map indicates about congressional reapportionment based on the 1990 census.

(b) Describe the political implications of these changes.











2.  Using the above graph and your knowledge of spending by the national government, perform the following three tasks:

(a) Define mandatory spending and domestic discretionary spending

(b) Compare the trends shown in the graph

(c) Tell whether these trends are expect to continue and explain why or why not











3. Using the data in the graph above and your knowledge of party politics in the United States since the 1950’s, perform the following tasks:

(a) Identify two significant trends in the graph

(b) For each trend you identify in (a) above, provide the following:

            I. An explanation for the trend

            II. An effect the trend has had on political campaigns














4.  Using the information in the pie charts above, identify two budgetary barriers that hinder the creation of new policy initiatives.  Explain why each of the barriers you identified persists.  Using your knowledge of U.S. politics, identify one non-budgetary barrier AND explain how this barrier hinders the creation of new policy initiatives.











5.  The graph above shows reelection rates for incumbents in the House and Senate.  From this information and your knowledge of United States Politics, perform the following tasks:

(a) Identify two patterns displayed in the graph.

(b) Identify two factors that contribute to incumbency advantage.  Explain how each factor contributes to incumbency advantage.

(c) Discuss one consequence of incumbency advantage for the U.S. political process.













 6. Using the chart above and your knowledge of United States elections, perform the following tasks:

(a) Identify three trends displayed in the graph

(b) Briefly discuss two reasons that explain any of these trends.


7.  In the 1990’s, presidential election campaigns have become more candidate centered and less focused on issues and party labels.  This change has been attributed both to how the media cover presidential campaigns and to how candidates use the media. 

(a)    Identify and explain two ways in which the media have contributed to candidate-centered presidential campaigns.

(b)    Identify and explain two ways in which presidential candidates’ use of the media has contributed to candidate-centered campaigns.


8. National interest groups often target national-level policymaking institutions to achieve their policy objectives.  Select one  of the following national interest groups.


·         American Association of Retired Persons

·         American Medical Association

·         National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

·         National Association of Manufacturers

For the group you selected, do each of the following:

 (a)    Identify one major national-level policymaking institution that this group targets

(b)    Describe one resource or characteristic of the group you have chosen AND explain how it influences the choice of the target you have identified in (a)

(c)    Describe another resource or characteristic of the group you have chosen AND explain how it influences the choice of the target you have identified in (a)


















 9. .  Using the chart above and your knowledge of United States politics, perform the following tasks:

(a) Identify two patterns in presidential appointments of lower federal court judges from the Johnson administration thought the Clinton administration.

(b) Discuss four political factors that influence a President’s choice of judicial appointees.

10.  In the 1970’s, in order to limit the power of the President and to reassert congressional authority in the policy-making process, Congress passed the following:


·         The War Powers Act

·         The Budget and Impound Control Act


Briefly describe the provisions of each of these two legislative acts.  Evaluate the extent to which each act has affected the balance of power between the presidency and Congress in the 1990’s.
















11.  The above figure displays voting patterns by state in the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections.  Using the information presented and your knowledge of U.S. voting behavior, perform the following tasks:

(a) Using the map, identify one of the numbered regions with strong Democratic support for a presidential candidate and identify and explain two factors that contribute to this support.

(b) Using the map, identify one of the numbered regions with strong Republican support for a presidential candidate and identify and explain two factors that contribute to this support.


12. The concept of iron triangles, also referred to as sub-governments, is used to explain how various interests influence public policy.  Applying this concept to agriculture, briefly:

(a)    identify the key players in the iron triangle

(b)    analyze how they interact to achieve policy goals

(c)    evaluate the impact of this iron triangle on the democratic process.


13. The contention that American political parties have been in decline since 1960 is challenged by some scholars who suggest instead that parties are resurgent.

(a)    What position do you take?

(b)    Summarize the arguments that support your position

(c)    Provide evidence that supports your analysis


14. Elections in the United States are characterized by low voter turnout.  Discuss TWO demographic characteristics associated with nonvoting and THREE institutional obstacles associated with nonvoting.























15. Using the information in the above table and your knowledge of U.S. politics, perform the following tasks:

(a) List three groups that were significant in President Clinton’s electoral coalition and explain why each was important.

(b) Describe the problems that President Clinton has in sustaining his winning coalition.


16. Discuss whether changes in the roles and responsibilities of the White House staff have led to greater presidential accountability and effectiveness.  Support your argument with examples from two presidencies since 1961, making sure to define both presidential “accountability” and “effectiveness”.


17. Have changes in the formal presidential nomination procedures since the mid-1960’s made the process more democratic?  In your response, support your argument by describing three specific changes in the procedures and discussing their effects.


18. The United States continually faces political crises over the federal budget.  Write an essay explaining why the budgetary process is so problematic with respect to each of the following:


(a)    The governmental structures involved in the budgetary process

(b)    The role of politics in the budgetary process


Based on your discussion in (a) and (b), evaluate whether the current budgetary process is likely to lead to continued political crisis.


19. Analyze whether federalism over the last 25 years has changed due to the increase in federal mandates on state and local governments.  In your essay, identify one federal mandate and discuss each of the following with respect to the mandate you have identified.


(a)    The objectives of the federal government in enacting a mandate

(b)    The impact on state and local government budget priorities as a result of the mandate

(c)    The potential consequences of the removal of the mandate


Generalizing from your discussion in (a), (b), and (c) above, assess the impact of increased federal mandates on federalism.


20. Since the 1960’s, the process of selecting presidential candidate has been altered by the changing role of presidential primaries and national party conventions.  Discuss FOUR effects that have resulted from this change in presidential selection process.


21.  The Supreme Court ruled in Barron v Baltimore (1833) that the Bill of Rights did not apply to the states.  Explain how the Court has interpreted the 14th Amendment to apply to the Bill of Rights to the states.  In your answer, briefly discuss the Court’s decision in one of the following cases to support your explanation.

Gitlow v New York (1925)

Wolf v Colorado (1949)

Gideon v Wainwright (1963)


22.  Is Congress effective in exercising legislative oversight of the federal bureaucracy?  Support your answer by doing ONE of the following:


(a)    Explain two specific methods Congress uses to exercise effective oversight of the federal bureaucracy


(b)    Give two specific explanations for the failure of Congress to exercise effective oversight over the federal bureaucracy


23.  The Constitution was an attempt to address problems of decentralization that were experienced under the Articles of Confederation.

(a)    List three problems of decentralized power that existed under the Articles of Confederation.  For each problem you listed, identify one solution that the Constitution provided to address the problem

(b)    Some have argued that the tensions between decentralized and centralized power continue to exist.  Support this argument by explaining how one of the following illustrates the continuing tension.

·         Environmental Policy

·         Gun Control

·         Disability Access


24.  The Supreme Court is commonly thought to be “above politics”.  However, one can argue that the appointment of Supreme Court Justices is political.


(a)    Identify three characteristics of Supreme Court nominees and discuss how each characteristic has been politically relevant during the appointment process.

(b)    Identify two methods that have been used by interest groups to influence the appointment process.  Explain how each of these methods has been used to influence that process.


25. The three obstacles listed below have made it difficult for Congress to enact significant campaign finance reform.


·         Buckley v Valeo (1976)

·         Soft money

·         Incumbency


Select two of the obstacles.  For each obstacle, provide both of the following:

(a)    A brief description of the obstacle

(b)    An explanation of how the obstacle has made it difficult for Congress to enact significant campaign finance reform.


26.  The concept of “divided government” in the United States means that one political party can control the executive branch while another controls the legislative branch.  This poses problems for the President in making appointments to federal offices.

(a)    Describe two problems that divided government poses for the President in making federal appointments

(b)    Identify and explain two ways Presidents try to overcome the problems described in (a)


27.  Political institutions can present both obstacles and opportunities to racial minority groups in their efforts to gain political influence.


(a)    Identify one feature of one of the following and explain how that feature has presented obstacles to racial minority groups in their efforts to achieve political goals.

·         Federalism

·         The United States political system

·         The United States electoral system

(b)    Identify one feature of one of the following and explain how that feature might present opportunities to racial minority groups in their efforts to achieve political goals

·         Federalism

·         The United States political system

·         The United States electoral system


28.  In the last half of the 20th Century, voter turnout in federal elections has declined. During the same period, voter turnout has been higher in presidential elections than in midterm elections.

(a)    Identify two factors that have contributed to the overall decline in turnout in federal elections and explain how each factor has contributed to overall decline.

(b)    Identify and explain two reasons why voter turnout has been higher in presidential elections than in midterm elections.


United States Government and Politics A.P Exam

Multiple Choice Sample Test


Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions.  Select the one that is best in each case and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.


1.        Which of the following is an example of checks and balances, as established in the Constitution?

a.        A requirement that states lower their legal drinking age to 18 as a condition of receiving funds through federal highway grant programs

b.       Media criticism of public officials during an election campaign period

c.        The Supreme Court’s ability to overturn a lower court decision

d.       The requirement that presidential appointments to the Supreme Court be approved by the Senate

e.        The election of the President by the electoral college rather than by direct election


Question: We hear a lot of talk these days about liberals and conservatives.  I’m going to show you a seven-point scale on which the political views that people might hold are arranged from extremely liberal – point 1 – to extremely conservative – point 7.  Where would you place yourself on this scale? (Point 4 not shown on scale)










2.        The graph above supports which of the following statements?

a.        People with higher incomes are more likely to think of themselves as conservative than are those with lower incomes.

b.       Americans with incomes under $10,000 are twice as likely to think of themselves as liberal than as conservative

c.        A majority of people whose incomes fall between $10,000 and $50,000 think of themselves as conservative

d.       No income group contains more people who think of themselves as liberal than people who think of themselves as conservative

e.        People with higher incomes are less likely to think of themselves as either liberal or conservative than those with lower incomes


3.        A primary election in which voters are required to identify a party preference before the election and are not allowed to split their ticket is called

a.        an open primary

b.       a blanket primary

c.        a closed primary

d.       a runoff primary

e.        a presidential preference primary


4.        When selecting a vice-presidential candidate, a presidential nominees is usually concerned primarily with choosing a running mate who

a.        has significant personal wealth

b.       adds balance and appeal to the national ticket

c.        comes from the same ideological wing of the party as the President

d.       can serve as the most important domestic policy advisor to the President

e.        can effectively preside over the Senate


5.        The primary function of political action committees (PAC’s) is to

a.        serve as fund-raising organizations for challengers

b.       provide members of Congress with unbiased information regarding proposed legislation

c.        consult with the President regarding domestic policy

d.       encourage broader participation in politics among the electorate

e.        raise campaign funds to support favored candidates








6.        Which of the following conclusions about income distribution during the Reagan administration is supported by the table above?

a.        The share of income received by the lowest fifth increased, whereas the share received by the fourth fifth decreased

b.       The share of income received by the second fifth increased, whereas the share received by the fourth fifth decreased

c.        The share of income received by the highest fifth increased, whereas the share received by the lowest fifth decreased

d.       The number of people earning high incomes increased

e.        The middle class disappeared


7.        Registered voters directly elect which of the following?

I.                     The President and Vice-President

II.                   Supreme Court Justices

III.                 Members of the Senate

IV.                 Members of the House of Representatives

a.        I only

b.       IV only

c.        I and II only

d.       III and IV only

e.        II, III, and IV only


8.        The role of a conference committee in Congress is to

a.        hold hearings on proposed legislation

b.       oversee the actions of the executive branch of the government

c.        decide which bills should be considered by the full Senate

d.       conduct hearings that make information available to the public

e.        reconcile differences in bills passed by the House and Senate


9.        Supreme Court justices were given tenure subject to good behavior by the framers of the Constitution in order to ensure that

a.        justices are free from direct political pressures

b.       justices remain accountable to the public

c.        justices are encouraged to make politically popular decisions

d.       cooperation between the judicial and legislative branches is assured

e.        Presidents are encouraged to seek younger nominees for the Supreme Court


10.     The committee system is more important in the House than in the Senate because

a.        the seniority system plays no role in the House and therefore committees must play a larger role

b.       the Constitution mandates the type of committee structure in the House

c.        committee members are appointed by the President

d.       the House is so large that more work can be accomplished in committees than on the floor

e.        the majority party in the House prefers to give priority to the work of the committees


11.     The most important source of the Supreme Court’s caseload is

a.        its original jurisdiction

b.       its appellate jurisdiction

c.        instruction from the solicitor general

d.       the special master’s certification of cases for review

e.        Congress’ certification of cases for review


12.     A President attempting to influence Congress to pass a legislative program might employ all of the following strategies EXCEPT

a.        using the media to draw attention to the legislative program

b.       assigning legislative liaisons in the Executive Office of the President to lobby legislators

c.        denying campaign reelection funds to legislators who oppose the President’s policy stand

d.       exploiting a partisan majority for the President’s party in both the House and Senate

e.        reminding legislators of high popularity ratings for the President in public opinion polls


13.     Presidents have had the most success in changing the direction of decisions of the federal judiciary by

a.        threatening to ask Congress to impeach specific judges

b.       using the media to build consensus for the president’s position

c.        requesting that Congress reduce the term of office that judges may serve

d.       using the appointment process to select judges with judicial philosophies similar to those of the President

e.        pressuring Congress to pass the appropriate legislation to override judicial opinions


14.     Which of the following did the most to expand civil rights in the 1950’s?

a.        State legislative decisions desegregating public accommodations

b.       State court decisions outlawing poll taxes

c.        The passage of voting-rights legislation by Congress

d.       Executive orders mandating affirmative action

e.        The Supreme Court decision declaring state-mandated school segregation to be unconstitutional


15.     Which of the following is true about the right of free speech, as currently interpreted by the Supreme Court?

a.        It protects the right to express opinions even without the actual use of words

b.       It protects the use of language deemed obscene by the Court

c.        It allows citizens to disobey laws that they believe to be unjust

d.       It is protected from infringement by the federal government but not from infringement by state governments

e.        It cannot be limited in any manner


16.     The importance of Shay’s Rebellion to the development of the United States Constitution was that it

a.        revealed the necessity of both adding the Bill of Rights to the Constitution and creating a new system of checks and balance

b.       demonstrated the intensity of antiratification sentiment within the thirteen states

c.        indicated that a strong, constitutionally designed national government was needed to protect property and maintain order

d.       convinced the delegates attending the Constitutional Convention to accept the Connecticut Plan

e.        reinforced the idea that slavery should be outlawed in the new Constitution


17.     In a federal system of government, political power is primarily

a.        vested in local governments

b.       vested in regional governments

c.        vested in the central government

d.       divided between the central government and the regional governments

e.        divided between regional governments and local governments


18.     Which of the following generalizations about group voting tendencies is true?

a.        Jewish voters tend to vote Republican

b.       Protestant voters tend to be more liberal than Roman Catholics on economic issues

c.        More women than men identify themselves as Republicans

d.       Rural voters are morel likely to support Democratic candidates than are urban voters

e.        African American Democrats tend to support the more liberal candidates within their party


19.     A corporate lobbyist would be LEAST likely to have an informal discussion about a pending policy matter with which of the following?

a.        A member of the House in whose district the corporation has a plant

b.       A member of the White House staff concerned about the issue

c.        A member of the staff of the Senate committee handling a matter of concern to the corporation

d.       A federal judge in whose court a case important to the corporation is being heard

e.        A journalist for a major newspaper concerned about the issue


20.     Which of the following is a significant trend in the presidential nominating process over the past three decades?

a.        Replacement of national party conventions by national primaries process over the past three decades

b.       Increasing importance of presidential primaries rather than state conventions

c.        A sharply declining role for political action committees (PAC’s)

d.       Decreasing cost of campaigns

e.        Increasing control by political party leaders over outcomes

21.     Congressional standing committees are best describes as

a.        specially appointed investigative bodies

b.       joint committees of the two Houses of Congress

c.        committees created for each session

d.       permanent subject-matter committees

e.        advisory staff agencies


22.     All of the following powers are granted to the President by the Constitution EXCEPT

a.        commissioning officers in the armed forces

b.       addressing the Congress on the state of the union

c.        receiving ambassadors

d.       granting pardons for federal offenses

e.        forming new cabinet-level departments


23.     In which of the following did Congress move to regain powers previously lost tot he executive branch?

a.        Budget and Impound Control Act

b.       Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act

c.        Presidential Disability Act

d.       Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

e.        Persian Gulf War Resolution


24.     The date displayed in the table below best support which of the following statements?

a.        The reelection rate is higher in the Senate than in the House

b.       The average vote won by the Senate members surpasses that won by House members

c.        House seats are safer from election turnover than are Senate seats

d.       House members serve more terms than do Senators

e.        More members of the Senate win reelection by 60% or more of the vote than do members of the House












25.     Which of the following actions can Congress take if the Supreme Court finds a federal law unconstitutional?

a.        Appeal the Court’s decision to the District of Columbia’s Court of Appeals

b.       Formally request the President to veto the Court’s decision

c.        Remove certain members of the Court and replace them with new members

d.       Try to amend the Constitution

e.        Reenact the same law


26.     Which of the following statements about Congress is TRUE?

a.        Members of Congress only occasionally are interested in and pay attention to constituents

b.       The legislative process is frequently lengthy, decentralized, and characterized by compromise and bargaining

c.        Lobbyists and political action committees (PAC’s) successfully induce most members of Congress to trade their votes for campaign contributions

d.       The growth in the size of Congress as an organization is the principal cause of growth in the federal budget deficit

e.        Debate in both houses is structured by elaborate rules enacted by leaders of the majority party


27.     Which of the following is articulated in the War Powers Resolution?

a.        The President may declare war

b.       The President must finance any war efforts from a special contingency fund

c.        The President must bring troops home from hostilities within 60 to 90 days unless Congress extends the time

d.       The President many not nationalize state militias without congressional consent

e.        The President may not send troops into hostilities without a declaration of war from the United Nations


28.     In the 1992 election, the membership of Congress was altered significantly by an increase in the number of

a.        conservative Democrats

b.       liberal Republicans

c.        their-party representatives

d.       political independents

e.        minorities and women


29.     Discrimination in public accommodations was made illegal in the United States as a direct result of the

a.        Supreme Court decision in Brown v Board of Education of Topeka

b.       Supreme Court decision in Sweatt v Painter

c.        Civil Rights Act of 1964

d.       Montgomery bus boycott

e.        Voting Rights Act of 1965


30.     Most of the individual protections of the Bill of Rights now apply to the states because of the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the Constitution’s

a.        Preamble

b.       Necessary and proper clause

c.        Supremacy clause

d.       Tenth Amendment

e.        Fourteenth Amendment


31.     In McCulloch v Maryland, the Supreme Court established which of the following principles?

a.        States cannot interfere with or tax the legitimate activities of the federal government

b.       The judicial branch cannot intervene in political disputes between the president and Congress

c.        The federal Bill of Rights places no limitations on the states

d.       The federal government has the power to regulate commerce

e.        It is within the judiciary’s authority to interpret the constitution


32.     Political socialization is the process by which

a.        the use of private property is regulated by the government

b.       governments communicate with each other

c.        public attitudes toward government are measured and reported

d.       political values are passed to the next generation

e.        children are trained for successful occupations


33.     Which of the following is the most important influence on the choice made by voters in presidential elections?

a.        partisan identification

b.       party platform adopted at the national convention

c.        vice-presidential running mate

d.       endorsement by political incumbents

e.        appeal of the candidates’ spouses


34.     The advantages of incumbency is congressional elections includes which of the following?

I.                     Incumbents receive more campaign contributions than do challengers

II.                   Incumbents are able to provide important services for individual voters

III.                 The government provides campaign funds for incumbents

IV.                 The President usually endorses incumbents for reelection

V.                   Most American voters believe Congress does a good job

a.        I and II only

b.       III and IV only

c.        I, IV, and V only

d.       II, III, and V only

e.        III, IV, and V only


35.     Which of the following statements about rules of procedure in the House and Senatte is correct?

a.        Debate by a determined minority in either chamber cannot be halted

b.       The rules in each chamber bare determined by the majority whip

c.        The rues are specified in Article I of the Constitution

d.       The rules can be changed by the President during a national emergency

e.        The House operates more by formal rules, while the Senate operates more on informal understandings


36.     Which of the following procedures results in the removal of the President from office?

a.        The House and Senate vote for impeachment, and the Supreme Court reaches a guilty verdict

b.       The House votes for impeachment, and the Senate conducts a trial and reaches a guilty verdict

c.        The House and Senate both vote for a bill of impeachment

d.       Only the house votes for a bill of impeachment

e.        A criminal court finds the President guilty of “high crimes and misdemeanors”


37.     Interest groups and political parties both promote United States democracy by

a.        expressing detailed, ideologically distinct programs

b.       centralizing public authority

c.        linking citizens to the political process

d.       increasing domination of the political process by elites

e.        lobbying members of Congress


38.     Which of the following statements accurately describes the selection of the caseload for the United States Supreme Court?

a.        The United States Constitution spells out all of the categories of cases that the Supreme court must hear

b.       The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has the authority to select the cases that the Court will hear

c.        The Solicitor General in the Department of Justice determines the Supreme Court’s agenda

d.       The Supreme Court is free to choose the cases it hears with only a few limitations

e.        The Attorney General screens cases for consideration by the Court


39.     The boundaries of United States congressional districts are usually determined by

a.        the Federal Election Commission (FEC)

b.       the state legislatures

c.        the House Rules Committee

d.       a conference committee of the House and Senate

e.        the director of the United States Census Bureau


40.     Public monies are used to help finance which of the following campaigns?

I.                     Presidential

II.                   Congressional

III.                 Gubernatorial

a.        I only

b.       II only

c.        I and II only

d.       II and III only

e.        I, II, and III


41.     Diversity of public policy throughout the United States is primarily a consequence of

a.        federalism

b.       separation of power

c.        innovation within bureaucratic agencies

d.       decentralization in the Senate

e.        lack of party discipline in the House


42.     All of the following have contributed to an increase in presidential power in the post-1945 ear EXCEPT

a.        tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War period

b.       an increase in public expectations for services from the federal government

c.        economic and domestic problems such as inflation, unemployment, and civil rights issues

d.       increasing United States involvement in international affairs

e.        legislation granting the President the power to impound funds appropriated by Congress


43.     One of the formal tools used by Congress for oversight of the bureaucracy is

a.        the line item veto

b.       authorization of spending

c.        impoundment bills

d.       private bills

e.        senatorial courtesy


44.     Decisions reached by the Supreme Court under the leadership of Chief Justice Earl Warren (1953-1969) did all of the following EXCEPT

a.        rule against malapportionment in state legislatures

b.       void state statutes that permitted school segregation

c.        invalidate state abortion statues

d.       expand the rights of criminal defendants

e.        increase protection for First Amendment freedoms


45.     The “Miranda warning” represents an attempt to protect criminal suspects against

a.        unfair police interrogation

b.       biased jury selection

c.        imprisonment without trial

d.       illegal wiretapping

e.        unjustified police surveillance


46.     The reserved powers of the state governments can best be described as those powers

a.        not specifically granted to the national government or denied to the states

b.       implied in the Fifth Amendment

c.        listed specifically in the Tenth Amendment

d.       exercised by both national and state governments

e.        granted to states as part of the implied powers doctrine


47.     Critical elections in the United States typically have occurred

a.        as a result of a temporary shift in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties

b.       whenever a third party has secured more than fifteen percent of the presidential vote

c.        each time a Republican has been elected president

d.       when voter turnout has declined significantly from the previous election

e.        when groups of voters have changed their traditional patterns of party loyalties


48.     When 18 to 21 year olds received the right to vote in 1971, in the 1972 national elections they did which of the following?

a.        Voted overwhelmingly for Republican candidates

b.       Voted overwhelmingly for Democratic candidates

c.        Voted overwhelmingly for radical candidates

d.       Turned out at a lower rate than the rest of the electorate

e.        Turned out at the same rate as the rest of the electorate


49.     The largest amount of political coverage in newspapers during presidential campaigns is devoted to

a.        day-to-day campaign activities

b.       the platforms of the major parties

c.        candidates’ policy stands on domestic issues

d.       candidates’ stands on foreign police issues

e.        candidates’ experience and qualifications


50.     A state has 11 electoral votes.  In a presidential election, the Democratic candidate receives 48 percent of that state’s popular vote, the Republican candidate receives 40 percent of the vote, and an independent candidate receives 12 percent of the vote.

If the state is similar to most other states, how will the electoral votes most likely be allocated?

a.        The democratic candidate will receive 5 electoral votes, the Republican will receive 4, and the independent will receive 2

b.       The Democratic candidate will receive 6 electoral votes and the Republican will receive 5

c.        The Democratic candidate will receive all 11 electoral votes

d.       The votes will not be allocated until there has been a runoff election between the Democratic and Republican candidates

e.        The House of Representatives will determine the allocation of the electoral vote


51.     Which of the following is the most accurate statement about political parties in the Untied States?

a.        Parties increasingly identify themselves with coherent ideologies to attract large blocs of voters

b.       The percentage of voters identifying themselves as either Democrats or Republicans has been declining since the 1970’s

c.        National party organizations  are generally the strongest party organizations

d.       It is increasingly difficult for third parties to gain more than two percent of the popular vote

e.        Most candidates prefer to run as independents rather than as Democrats or Republicans


52.     The congressional power that has been contested most frequently in the federal courts is the power to

a.        establish post offices

b.       coin money

c.        levy taxes

d.       regulate commerce with foreign nations

e.        regulate interstate commerce


53.     Which of the following is an accurate statement about committees in Congress?

a.        The work of a committee ends when it submits a bill to the full House or Senate for consideration

b.       An individual representative or senator can serve on only one committee and one subcommittee

c.        Membership on key committees such as House Rules and Senate Finance is limited to fixed terms

d.       Standing committees oversee the bureaucracy’s implementation of legislation

e.        Committee recommendations tend to have little influence on floor voting


54.     The request of recent Presidents for the line-item veto is a challenge to woch of the following principles?

a.        separation of powers

b.       senatorial courtesy

c.        eminent domain

d.       executive privilege

e.        congressional oversight


55.     Which of the following form an “iron triangle”?

a.        President, Congress, Supreme Court

b.       President, House Majority Leader, Senate Majority Leader

c.        Interest group, Senate majority leader, House majority leader

d.       Executive department, House majority leader, President

e.        Executive department, Congressional committee, interest group


56.     An election involving more than two candidates in which theh person who receives the most votes is the winner is called

a.        a majority election

b.       a proportional election

c.        a plurality election

d.       a simple election

e.        an indirect election


57.     Cabinet members often to not have a dominant influence on presidential decision-making because

a.        cabinet members generally maintain close independent ties to Congress

b.       cabinet members generally view their position only as a stepping stone to further their own political ambitions

c.        cabinet members are not permitted to disagree publicly with the president

d.       presidential goals often conflict with the institutional goals of individual cabinet level agencies

e.        only half of all cabinet members can be members of the president’s party


58.     A fundamental source of power for the federal bureaucracy lies in its

a.        role in moving legislation out of sub-committees

b.       role in mediating interstate conflicts

c.        ability to convince Congress to fund most projects it supports

d.       ability to mobilize public opinion in support of legislative initiatives

e.        ability to set specific guidelines after receiving a general mandate from Congress


59.     The establishment clause in the First Amendment does which of the following?

a.        guarantee freedom of speech to all citizens

b.       prevents prior restraint of the press

c.        prohibits the setting up of a state church

d.       defines the concept of dual citizenship

e.        allows citizens to enter freely into contracts with other citizens


60.     Griswold v Connecticut and Roe v Wade are similar Supreme Court cases in that both cases are based on the

a.        rights of gay men and lesbian women

b.       right of privacy

c.        right to an abortion

d.       right to freedom from cruel and unusual punishment

e.        right of women to equal protection before the law










Answers to United States Government and Politics Exam


1. D                         2. A                         3. C                         4. B                         5. E                         5. C


7. D                         8. E                         9. A                         10. D                      11. B                      12. C


13. D                      14. E                       15. A                      16. C                      17. D                      18. E


19. D                      20. B                      21. D                      22. E                       23. A                      24. C


25. D                      26. B                      27. C                      28. E                       29. C                      30. E


31. A                      32. D                      33. A                      34. A                      35. E                       36. B


37. C                      38. D                      39. B                      40. A                      41. A                      42. E


43. B                      44. C                      45. A                      46. A                      47. E                       48. D


49. A                      50. C                      51. B                      52. E                       53. D                      54. A


55. E                       56. C                      57. D                      58. E                       59. C                      60. B



This ends this AP Government Exam preparation.  If you have followed the study suggestions presented, have completed the multiple-choice questions, and have created study strategies for each timed write, you should have succeeded on the above practice test and should do well on the AP Government Test. 


Good Luck.