United States History

Chapter 1,2,3 and 4 Test


1)   Early North American migrating by way of the land-bridge came from

A)  Africa .

B)  Australia .

C)  Greenland

D)  Asia.

E)  Western Europe.


2)   The most advanced Native American cultures appeared in which region of America ?

A)  the Mississippi Valley .

B)  Canada .

C)  the Southwest.

D)  the Northeast.

E)  Mexico and Central America .


3)   Which of the following resulted in the earliest difference in levels of civilization among early Native American cultures?

A)  tribal political alliances.

B)  the development of agriculture.

C)  the discovery of hunting.

D)  contact with Europeans.

E)  emergence of a written language.


4)   The aggressive Native American people occupying the valley of Mexico upon the arrival of  Hernan Cortes were the

A)  Apaches.

B)  Aztecs.

C)  Iroquois

D)  Incas.

E)  Mayas.


5)   The single greatest factor that caused the destruction of Native Americans after their contact with Europeans was

A)  forced Christianity.

B)  planned genocide.

C)  disease.

D)  warfare.

E)  famine.


6)   Columbus originally was determined to prove that

A)  a westward water route to China existed.

B)  the continents of North and South America existed.

C)  the lost continent of Atlantis was actually part of South America .

D)  the world was not flat.

E)  the trip to the new world could be made by sailing southeast.


7)   In order to better control the conquistadores in the New World , the Spanish government created

A)  the Treaty of Tordesailles.

B)  the encomienda.

C)  the inquisition.

D)  the hacienda.

E)  the missions.




8)   Initial French explorers were

A)  interested in finding the mythical "northwest passage" to China .

B)  eager to Christianize the Indians.

C)  focused on mapping the coast of South America .

D)  determined to find gold and silver.

E)  ruthless and exploitive of the native peoples.


9)   In their relationship with the Indians, the French

A)  were as obsessed with Christian conversion as the Spanish.

B)  drove them from their land in order to set up plantations.

C)  were ruthless in their treatment of the Indians.

D)  tended to cultivate good relations because of the Indian's knowledge of fur trapping.

E)  found the Indians of North America with heap big amounts of gold.


10)   What sixteenth-century European upheaval had a profound impact upon England 's settlement of the New World ?

A)  the Reformation.

B)  the Hundred Years' War.

C)  the Black Death.

D)  the War of the Roses.

E)  the Crusades.


11)   The first colonization efforts undertaken by the English in the New World were largely the schemes of

A)  Parliament.

B)  the Crown.

C)  Italians acting on behalf of the English monarch.

D)  a combined French and English effort to thwart Spain .

E)  private individuals as part of joint stock companies.


12)   Who developed strong arguments for England 's continued efforts at colonizing the New World , despite early failures?

A)  Walter Raleigh.

B)  Richard Hakluyt.

C)  Queen Elizabeth.

D)  Francis Drake.

E)  Humphrey Gilbert.


13)   Which of the following best describes the way Europeans treated Native Americans in the 1500s and 1600s?

A)  Native Americans were regarded as inferior people subject to Christian domination.

B)  Native Americans ways of life were respected.

C)  Since nothing of value could be learned or obtained from the Native Americans, Europeans thought it was permissible to exterminate them.

D)      Europeans cultivated good relations with Native Americans and sought to make them economic partners.

E)       Only the English believed that Native Americans should be treated fairly.


14)   Various colonies in seventeenth-century (1600s) America could be characterized best in terms of their

A)  desire to help each other.

B)  similarity to French and Spanish migrants of the same period.

C)  unity of purpose and motivation.

D)  striking diversity.

E)  similarity of being "English."


15)   Early Jamestown might have gone the way of Roanoke had it not been for the perseverance of

A)  Queen Elizabeth.

B)  Captain John Smith.

C)  Richard Hakluyt.

D)  Pocahontas.

E)  John Winthrop.


16)   Jamestown 's prosperity was ensured by

A)  the discovery of gold.

B)  royal financial support.

C)  tobacco cultivation and the headright system

D)  the development of fur trading.

E)  healthy living conditions.


17)   Under the "headright" system in Virginia ,

A)  slaves were guaranteed freedom after 5 years of service.

B)  a paid fare of a person from England to the colony got you 50 acres.

C)  every adult male could vote.

D)  every child was guaranteed a primary education.

E)  new immigrants were guaranteed a year's provisions.


18)   Those who migrated to the Chesapeake as indentured servants were

A)  usually from the dregs of English society.

B)  normally single, landless,  lower class males in their teens or early twenties.

C)  mainly seeking religious freedom.

D)  English farmers who saw a better future in the New World .

E)  married individuals who came with their families.


19)   Unlike Virginia , Maryland was established

A)  as a commercial center.

B)  as a religious sanctuary for persecuted English Catholics.

C)  by French Huguenots.

D)  as a frontier outpost to secure the area from the French.

E)  as a haven for ex convicts from England .


20)   Unlike their southern counterparts, the first Englishmen who came to New England were

A)  religious refugees attempting to create a community.

B)  looking to get rich quick, then return to England .

C)  in search of land and riches.

D)  Catholic missionaries.

E)  wealthy aristocrats, hoping to establish a feudal system in America .


21)   Pennsylvania was founded as a haven for

A)  Puritans.

B)  Catholics.

C)  Quakers.

D)  Germans.

E)  Baptists.


22)   Which one of the following individuals is incorrectly associated with his colony?

A)  Roger Williams-- Rhode Island .

B)  James Oglethorpe-- Georgia

C)  John Smith-- Virginia .

D)  John Winthrop-- Massachusetts .

E)       George Calvert-- Pennsylvania .


23)   In which one of the following were religious reasons the least important in explaining the founding of the colony?

A)  Maryland .

B)  Massachusetts .

C)  Pennsylvania.

D)  Rhode Island .

E)  Virginia .


24)   Which of the following accurately describes a problem faced by Virginia in the last decades of the 17th century?

A)  a decline in tobacco production.

B)  frequent slave uprisings.

C)  the lowering of wages caused by an influx of immigrants.

D)  political control by small farmers in the House of Burgesses.

E)  conflict between large plantation owners and settlers on Virginia 's frontier.


25)   Anne Hutchinson differed from Puritan ministers in her emphasis on

A)  the study of the Bible.

B)  the value of consensus in church meetings.

C)  nonviolence.

D)  the individual's private religious conscience.

E)  the supreme authority of church leaders.





26)   The chief purpose of mercantilist policies was to

A)  help colonies become self-sufficient.

B)  stengthen the economy and power of the mother country.

C)  defend the colonies from rival powers.

D)  maintain tight control over the tobacco industry.

E)  foster stable relations between the Crown and the colonies.


27)   The Navigation Acts of the mid to late 17th century had all of the following consequences in the colonies except:

A)  colonial manufacturing was limited.

B)  colonial economies were regulated from London .

C)  colonists boycotted all English manufacturing goods.

D)  smuggling became a common practice.

E)  the colonial shipbuilding industry prospered.


28)   The Half-Way Covenant of seventeenth-century New England

A)  allowed the admission of slaves and Indians to Congregationalism.

B)  lessened, somewhat, the requirements for baptism as a Congregationalist in order to increase membership.

C)  applied, primarily, to the property rights of New England settlers.

D)  made it significantly harder to practice Puritan teachings.

E)  allowed Native American and English colonist interracial marriage.


29)   By the end of the seventeenth century, Virginia could best be described as

A)  a land of opportunity, especially for a recently freedman desiring a small farm.

B)  a plantation society, dominated by a slaveholding aristocracy.

C)  a society of small farmers, committed to multi-crop agriculture.

D)  a diversified society and economy, with minimal social stratification.

E)  a successful commercial enterprise that returned large profits to the Crown.


30)   The sources of the witchcraft hysteria in Salem

A)  reflected the community's underlying resistance to the teachings of Calvinism.

B)  reflected jealousy of young rural women toward rich single townswomen.

C)  are not known exactly.

D)  reflect the rural village jealousy of the newfound materialism of the town.

E)  were primarily economic.


31)   Which of the following did NOT contribute to Bacon leading a rebellion?

A)  to become a popular leader of the people

B)  to rid Virginia of Indians who prevented westward expansion

C)  to secure a fur license.

D)  to abolish slavery and make Virginia a more democratic society

E)  to break the power of the planter elite


32)   The British objective of the Navigation Acts was to eliminate the ________ from the American trade.

A)  English.

B)  Dutch.

C)  Spanish.

D)  Portuguese.

E)  French


33)   In 1686, James II attempted to restructure the entire New England area, including New York , by creating the _______.

A)  Act of Toleration.

B)  Restoration.

C)  Dominion of New England .

D)  Glorious Revolution.

E)  Puritan Commonwealth .


34)   The society Puritans created in New England

A)  was modeled on contemporary Dutch society.

B)  copied the social order they had left behind in England .

C)  was quite similar to that of the Chesapeake region.

D)  represented total rejection of traditional English ways.

E)  created a large gap between a group of haves and have nots.


35)   The royal governor of the Dominion of New England who strictly enforced the Navigation Acts was

A)  Edmund Andros.

B)  John Winthrop.

C)  William Berkeley.

D)  William Bradford.

E)  Nathaniel Bacon.


36)   After 1700, American colonies increasingly

A)  turned away from Britain , and toward France and Germany .

B)  adopted Native-American ways and customs.

C)  became “anglicized”.

D)  isolated themselves from British and European influence.

E)  became more different from each other.


37)   Responsible for most of the growth in the American colonies between 1700 and 1770 was the

A)  dramatic upsurge in the importation of slaves.

B)  natural reproduction of colonial families.

C)  increasing death rate.

D)  great wave of immigration during that period.

E)  program of forced migration instituted by the monarchy.


38)   Colonial ministers who opposed the Great Awakening were known as

A)  "Old Lights."

B)  duds.

C)  pietists.

D)  evangelicals.

E)  "New Lights."


39)   By the 1760s, a substantial percentage of American exports involved trade with

A)  Africa .

B)  Holland .

C)  the West Indies .

D)  Brazil .

E)  France .


40)   The shifting patterns of eighteenth-century colonial trade helped to

A)  promote the growth of a totally unique American culture.

B)  separate the colonies from British culture.

C)  widen differences between regions of the colonies.

D)  "anglicize" American culture.

E)  destroy the English economy.


41)   The one American who, more than anyone else, symbolized the spirit of the Enlightenment was

A)  John Davenport.

B)  Benjamin Franklin.

C)  Cotton Mather.

D)  George Whitefield.

E)  Jonathan Edwards.


42)   Which of the following was NOT an important effect of the Great Awakening?

A)  It cut across congregational and colonial boundaries.

B)  It encouraged the development of individualism.

C)  It fostered an optimistic view of the future, among those touched by it.

D)  It strengthened the authority of the old colonial religions.

E)  It stimulated higher education in the colonies.







43)   Royal governors frequently found colonial assemblies

A)  stubborn concerning every issue, except money.

B)  made up of lower class representatives.

C)  totally acquiescent to the needs of the royal government.

D)  more concerned in preserving the liberties of the common man than their England counterparts.

E)  easily led and managed.


44)   What did the Great Awakening, inter-colonial trade, and the rise of the colonial assemblies have in common?

A)  They helped create imperial rivalry between England and France .

B)  They fueled an increased level of consumerism.

C)  They created disdain for England .

D)  They created a rebellious spirit in America .

E)  They all contributed to a growing sense of shared colonial identity.


45)   Which of the following wars between England and France had the greatest political and economic impact on colonial America ?

A)  King William's War.

B)  The French and Indian War.

C)  King George's War.

D)  King Philips War.

E)  Queen Anne's War.


46)   The major source of Anglo-French conflict in the colonies was

A)  international naval supremacy.

B)  control of the Ohio Valley .

C)  over the harsh French treatment of Native Americans.

D)  political grievances.

E)  slavery.


47)   Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the Seven Years' War?

A)  It trained a corps of American officers.

B)  It revealed British discontent with America 's contribution to its own defense.

C)  It led to the creation of a new colony.

D)  It made colonists more aware of their land.

E)  It created an illusion among colonists that they were equals with other citizens in the British empire .


48)   The Great Awakening was a reaction to

A)  the flood of Scottish immigrants.

B)  established churches in many of the colonies.

C)  churches' earlier failure to take account of people's emotional needs.

D)  guilt over the evils of slavery.

E)  the overly strict teachings of the church of  England.


49)   Preachers of the Great Awakening focused on the importance of

A)  the consequences of leading a sinful life.

B)  the sovereignty and power of God.

C)  repenting of one's sins in order to be saved from eternal damnation.

D)  looking to the Bible as the final source of authority.

E)  all of the above.


50)   The Great Awakening had all of the following consequences except

A)  total agreement by religious leaders as to religious doctrine.

B)  decline in the authority of Protestant preachers.

C)  a belief that common people could make their own decisions.

D)  increased emotionalism in church services.

E)  a feeling of shared experience among colonists in different regions.







U.S. History

Chapter 5 and 6 Test

Part A.  80 points.  Choose the best answer.

1. Central to the colonists' argument in their conflict with England in the 1760s was the idea that …

A) Parliament was the supreme political power in England .

B) They should be permitted to elect their own governors.

C) They had no legitimate, actual representation in Parliament.

D) Only the king could impose taxes on the colonies.

E) Colonial legislatures should not have the power to tax.


2. What fundamental change in British policy was made after the French and Indian War?

A)  Laws were passed to generate revenue from the American colonies.

B)  Laws were passed forcing colonists to trade almost exclusively with Britain .

C)  Colonists were encouraged to settle the lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains .

D)  The number of British troops stationed in North America was dramatically reduced.

E)  Colonists were permitted to trade with countries other than England .


3.  American colonists, in the years just after the conclusion of the Seven Years' War, could be characterized best as

A) apathetic about colonial-British relations.

B) eager for independence from Great Britain .

C) a desire to ally with France .

D) optimistic about the future of being American colonists in the British Empire .

E) hostile toward the British.


4.  "After the French and Indian War, the British government tried to make American trade a source of revenue for the colonies through tariffs.  Each of the following supports this except


A) Proclamation of 1763.

B) Stamp Act.

C) Sugar Act.

D) Quartering Act.

E) Townshend Act.


5.  In the aftermath of Pontiac 's rebellion, American colonists

A) Were firmly resolved not to expand westward beyond the Appalachian Mts.

B) Were envious of the French, who had control of the Indian tribes.

C) Realized the error of white man's way in dealing with the Indians.

D) Were puzzled as to what purpose the British Army was playing, if it failed to protect colonists from the Indians.

E) Established better trade relations with Quebec .


6.  In the 1760s and 1770s, most members of Parliament

A) feared the power of the colonial assemblies.

B) were well-informed in colonial affairs.

C) created policies which seemed to give a rebellious gentry the propaganda they needed to incite the general population

to rebell.

D) continued the practice of pre 1763- the practice of salutary neglect.

E) were creative in their solutions to colonial problems.


7.   Central to the colonists' position in the Anglo-American debate over parliamentary powers was

A) their unswerving support of the monarchy.

B) their willingness to defer to the wishes of Parliament.

C) their support of the idea of virtual representation.

D) their desire for an authoritarian government.

E) their strong belief in the powers of their own provincial assemblies.


8.  The most significant impact of the Stamp Act of 1765 was on

A) members of the pony express.

B) primarily colonial manufacturers.

C) only those who engaged in direct trade with Great Britain .

D) the lives of ordinary people, as well as those of the elite.

E) only businessmen and merchants.

9.  Which of the following was not a consequence of the Stamp Act?

A) Delegates from different colonies held a protest meeting in New York .

B) The Sons of Liberty threatened tax officials.

C) Colonial war debts were paid and the British treasury was no longer in the red.

D) Colonists boycotted British goods.

E) London merchants suffered from the reduction of trade because of the boycotts


10.  The radical leader of the anti-Stamp Act movement and mostly responsible for the Virginia Resolves was

A) Thomas Jefferson.

B) George Washington.

C) Sam Adams.

D) James Madison.

E) Patrick Henry.


11.  After repealing the Stamp Act, Parliament stated that it still maintained sovereignty to raise taxes if it saw fit by passing the

A) Coercive Acts

B) Townshend Acts

C) Quartering Act

D) Declaratory Act

E) Stamp Act


12.  England passed the Coercive Acts in response to

A) the Declaratory Act.

B) the Boston Tea Party.

C) the American victory at Saratoga .

D) the colonial boycott of the Stamp Act.

E) the fact that the treasury had been drained from the  Seven Years War.


13.  Samuel Adams' role prior to 1774 can best be described as

A) loyalist.

B) genuine revolutionary.

C) pacifist.

D) compromiser.

E) pragmatist.


14.  The Tea Act of 1773 was passed in order to

A) save the East India Company from going bankrupt.

B) punish colonists for the Boston Massacre.

C) encourage the colonists to smuggle tea into America .

D) raise revenue to pay royal governors' salaries.

E) support the stationing of British troops in America .


15.  The most important responsibility facing the Second Continental Congress was to

A) convince the colonists of the necessity for war.

B) find a strong political leader for the nation.

C) organize and carry out the war effort.

D) win loyalty from the Indians.

E) hammer out a peace treaty with France .


16.  The 17th Century English political philosopher who merged justification of political dissent with traditional religious values was 

A) Edmund Burke.

B) Thomas Paine.

C) John Locke.

D) William Pitt.

E) Machiavelli.






17.  Enlightenment philosophers would least likely believe that

A) People have the right to revolt against tyranny.

B) People have rights simply because they are human.

C) Sovereignty resides with the people.

D) A fundamental purpose of the government is to protect the rights of man.

E) Monarchs should rule based on the Divine Right.


18.  "Common Sense"

A) acknowledged the sovereignty of the monarch.

B) was written by John Locke.

C) provided the colonists with a rationale for revolution.

D) called on the colonial elite to mend their ties with Great Britain .

E) had little popularity among the colonists.


19.  Which of the following most accurately describes the change in American public opinion between January 1774, and July1776?

A) It changed from a desire for possible reconciliation with the empire to a decision for independence.

B) Most people favored independence in 1774, but were willing to fight for it only after the Declaration of Independence.

C) Loyalists were a majority both in 1774 and 1776.

D) By the summer of 1776, only a very small number of Americans expressed support of the King's government.

E) Military support from France encouraged American patriots.


20.  Which of the following was not an advantage of the Americans over the British at the beginning of the war in 1776?

A) The British having to transport supplies across the Atlantic Ocean .

B) The British would have to do more than conquer towns, it must seek and destroy the American Army.

C) The depth of commitment by Americans to the ideology of independence.

D) A population 4 times larger than that of England .

E) The home field advantage.


21.  After failing to first capture Boston , and second to cut New England off from the rest of the colonies,  British military strategists predicted that their last chance for victory over the colonies lay in

A) calling on its European allies for help.

B) an all out invasion of Washington D.C.

C) a more effective use of its great navy.

D) a successful campaign in the American south.

E) the breaking of the French-American alliance.


22.  The Battle of Saratoga had all of the following consequences except

A) that it encouraged the British to surrender immediately.

B) that it persuaded the French to form an alliance with the United States .

C) that it defeated a British attempt to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies.

D) that it gave a boost to American morale.

E) that it caused the British to adopt a new military strategy.


23.  The British commander who surrendered at Yorktown in 1781 was

A) Howe.

B) Arnold , not Hey, but Benedict.

C) Cornwallis.

D) Gage.

E) Paine.


24.  As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the United States gained all of the following except

A) fishing rights off of the coast of Canada .

B) British recognition of U.S. independence.

C) a western boundary on the Mississippi river .

D) the territory of Florida .

E) French recognition of U.S. independence.





25.  Consider the question concerning American advantages in the Revolutionary War.  The United States commits a strikingly similar folly by becoming involved in 

A) WW I.


C) The Korean War.

D) The Vietnam War.

E) The Persian Gulf War.


26.   Shays' Rebellion involved

A)  western settlers demanding Indian territory .

B)  freed African-Americans demanding manumission of all slaves.

C)  discontented New England merchants.

D)  supporters of freer trade with Great Britain .

E)  discontented farmers in Massachusetts .


27.   Statement:  "The new state constitutions enacted during the Revolutionary War reflect the patriots' emphasis on individual liberty."  Each of the following actions supports this statement EXCEPT

A)  Providing for a republican form of government in each state.

B)  Providing for separation of powers to limit abuses of power by the government.

C)  The absence of any provision in all constitutions for the abolition of slavery.

D)  Submitting proposed constitutions to the people for ratification.

E)  Starting each constitution with a bill or rights.


28.   Which of the following resulted directly from the euphoria of liberty following the American Revolution?

A)  Slavery was abolished.

B)  Foundations were created challenging future generations to realize authentic liberty.

C)  Women achieved equality.

D)  African American freedmen were treated as first class citizens.

E)  Universal male suffrage was instituted.


29.   The Newburgh Conspiracy involved

A)  anti-federalists.

B)  those who believed the Articles gave too much power to the national government.

C)  discontented officers of the Continental Army.

D)  supporters of the Articles of Confederation.

E)  individuals dissatisfied with the military leadership of George Washington.


30.   A major fear of the Anti-federalists was that

A)  voters would have too much direct contact and thus influence on their representatives.

B)  voters would corrupt their national representatives.

C)  state governments could not govern effectively.

D)  national representatives would rely too consistently on local voters for their ideas and decisions.

E)  voters would be too distanced from their representatives.


31.   Which of the following was NOT a criticism of American government under the Articles of Confederation?

A)  its inability to solve the war debts problem.

B)  the fact that it gave too much power to a central government

C)  its inability to deal with the country's fiscal instability

D)  its failure to adequately confront threats from Britain and Spain along U.S. borders

E)  its failure to deal with the nation's economic problems


32.   Which of the following did not lead to the Constitutional Convention?

A)  the Annapolis Convention.

B)  the passage of the Northwest Land Ordinance.

C)  Shays' Rebellion.

D)  the Newburgh conspiracy.

E)  failure to pass the Impost of 1781.





33.   The European philosopher whose ideas supported the theory of state sovereignty based on the notion that a large republic could not survive.

A)  Locke.

B)  Voltaire.

C)  Paine.

D)  Montesquieu.

E)  Machiavelli.


34.   Regarding slavery, one of the Constitutional Convention's most important decisions

A)  provided for an immediate end to the importation of African slaves.

B)  declared slavery to be illegal as of 1808.

C)  immediately abolished slavery in the northern states.

D)  called for the ending of the slave trade in 1808.

E)  allowed the slave trade to continue indefinitely.


35.   Federalists are most closely associated with

A)  desiring to preserve the Articles of Confederation.

B)  insisting that the Bill of Right be included in the Constitution.

C)  supporting a strong central government.

D)  the jealous protection of state rights.

E)  a refusal to pay the national debt.


36.   The proposed new Constitution of 1787 called for the election of a president by

A)  the federal congress.

B)  a direct vote of the people.

C)  an electoral college.

D)  the House of Representatives.

E)  the state legislatures.


37.  The Federalist essays were written by

A)  Madison, Hamilton, and Jay.

B)  Thomas Jefferson.

C)  Washington and Adams.

D)  Patrick Henry.

E)  Randolph and Franklin.


38.   Which of the following statements accurately describes an argument of the Anti-Federalists prior to ratification.

A)  The Constitution failed to provide for a Supreme Court.

B)  The Constitution lacked a Bill of Rights.

C)  States' rights were strong enough to limit the central government.

D)  The president's powers were too limited.

E)  The large states had to be protected from the small states.


39.   The most important achievement of the government under the Articles of Confederation involved

A)  regulating trade with British manufacturers.

B)  the organization for settlement of  northwestern lands.

C)  U.S. relations with European countries.

D)  slavery.

E)  maintaining a strong standing army.


40.   The brilliant American political theorist who had the greatest impact on the Constitution was

A)  James Madison.

B)  John Adams.

C)  John Locke.

D)  George Washington.

E)  Thomas Jefferson.




Chapter 7-Partisan Fervor

1.  Early in Washington 's administration, policymaking was dominated by

A)  the president.

B)  the Congress.

C)  Thomas Jefferson.

D)  Alexander Hamilton.

E)       the Cabinet.


2.   Which of the following would an early federalist have supported?

A)  providing government subsidies to manufacturers.

B)  strong diplomatic ties with France .

C)  giving the common man the vote.

D)  a reduction in tariffs to assist southern plantation owners.

E)       the purchase of western lands for agriculture.


3.  To Thomas Jefferson it was important that the new government

A)  decrease the role agriculture played in the American economy.

B)  support business and industrial development.

C)  foster strong ties with Great Britain .

D)  end trade with all nations.

E)       lean toward France in the event it clashed with Britain .


4.  Alexander Hamilton failed to achieve his economic policy objectives in his attempt to secure

A)  assumption of the state debts.

B)  creation of a national bank.

C)  the office of Secretary of the Treasury.

D)  passage of a protective tariff coupled with industrial subsidies.

E)  funding of the national debt.


5.  Hamilton 's justification for creating a Bank of the U.S. was based on the doctrine of

A)  judicial review.

B)  states' rights.

C)  implied powers.

D)  strict construction.

E)       checks and balances.


6.  In the early 1790s, British actions toward the United States indicated their

A)  complete compliance with withdrawing troops from the Northwest Territory .

B)  desire to recruit the United States as a close ally.

C)  willingness to join the French in taking advantage of the new country.

D)  disdain for American commerce on the seas.

E)       respect for the status of the new nation.


7.  Washington believed that the Whiskey Rebellion

A)  was not something with which to be concerned.

B)  should have been dealt with by the state of Pennsylvania .

C)  indicated the importance of repealing the excise tax.

D)  presented a direct threat to the nation directed by Republicans.

E)       was evidence of the British attempting to undermine the new Republic.


8.  Washington 's Farewell Address

A)  reflected a wariness of two problems plaguing his presidency:  political parties and foreign entanglements.

B)  supported the political ideology of Jefferson and Madison.

C)  warned against creating a strong military.

D)  attempted to bring harmony to the political system.

E)       warned future presidents to avoid selecting cabinet members.




9.  All of the following involved the issue of respect for American trade on the high seas except:

A)  The Quasi war with France .

B)  The Alien and Sedition Acts.

C)  Jay's Treaty.

D)  XYZ Affair.

E)       Barbary War.


10.   All of the following indicated Adam’s disenchantment with High Federalist policies except for

A)  The Creation of the Navy.

B)  Avoiding declaring war on France .

C)  The appointment of the Midnight Judges.

D)  Cutting the funding to " Hamilton 's Army."

E)  Having the Convention of Mortefontaine negogiated with France .


Chapter 8-Jefferson and Madison Retreat


11.   The westernmost point reached by the Lewis and Clark expedition was,

A)  St. Louis .

B)  the Pacific Ocean .

C)  the Rocky Mountains .

D)  Pike’s Peak .

E)  the Continental Divide.


12.  American prosperity in the early 1800s was based on

A)  declining exports.

B)  manufacturing.

C)  monetary supplies.

D)  an industrial economy.

E)  agriculture and commerce with other nations.


13.  The chief function of American cities according to Jeffersonian thought was as

A)  depots for international trade.

B)  agricultural market places.

C)  naval ports.

D)  financial centers.

E)  cultural centers.


14.  The United States ' success in dealing with the Barbary States during the war from 1801 to 1805

A)  was the result of several political revolutions in the Barbary States .

B)  was the result of an aggressive American naval blockade of those nations.

C)  was the result of Thomas Jefferson's decision to give in to the Barbary demands.

D)  was the result of the successful American invasion of those nations.

E)  was the result of peaceful negotiations.


15.  Thomas Jefferson's election in 1800 changed federalist policies in all of the following ways except

A)  reducing the size of the military.

B)  reducing the number of federal employees.

C)  reducing the amount of the national debt.

D)  recalling some foreign ambassadors.

E)  ending the practice of restricting criticism of government policies.


16.  Jefferson dealt with the national debt by

A)  deficit spending.

B)  increasing excise taxes and tariff taxes.

C)  decreasing the functions of the national government.

D)  demanding greater cooperation from the states.

E)  continuing  Hamilton 's programs.






17.   What difficulty did Jefferson face in purchasing the Louisiana Territory ?

A)  possible confrontation with Great Britain .

B)  the constitutionality of his actions.

C)  whether to accept foreign citizens on the land.

D)  lack of support from the American people.

E)  how to divide the new territory up equally among existing states.


18.  Thomas Jefferson's chief reason for purchasing Louisiana was to

A)  challenge Hamilton 's loose interpretation of the constitution.

B)  challenge Napoleon's bid for world empire.

C)  give the United States control of the Mississippi River and New Orleans .

D)  provide a rationale for the Lewis and Clarke expedition.

E)  strengthen the Republican Party in the trans Mississippi west.


19.  After 1800, Federalists maintained their strongest influence in which area of the government?

A)  the state legislatures.

B)  the judiciary.

C)  the presidency.

D)  the Congress.

E)  the navy.


20.   According to the doctrine established in Marbury v. Madison

A)  the court could decide on the constitutionality of federal laws.

B)  only the Congress could decide the size of the judiciary.

C)  Madison would have to deliver the judgeship to Marbury.

D)  the court could compel federal officials to give up their elected positions without impeachment.

E)  the executive branch should interfere with established federal laws.


21.   The most lasting influence of the Supreme Court decision in Fletcher v. Peck ( Yazoo ) was that

A)  the court supported the arguments of those who had bought land.

B)  the court could rule on the constitutionality of state laws.

C)  the court upheld legislative fraud-impaired contracts.

D)  the court upheld the sanctity of contracts, unless they were fraudulent.

E)  the court ruled it would review all land sales by state legislatures.


22.  The British Orders in Council

A)  had little effect on American shipping.

B)  allowed broken voyages to occur.

C)  was countered by Napoleon’s Continental System.

D)  declared impressment illegal.

E)  gave Great Britain control of the seas.


23.   In dealing with the conflict between England and France initially, which tool did Jefferson choose to employ?

A)  invading Canada and forcing the English to surrender.

B)  honoring a debt to the French, and allying with them.

C)  creating an alliance with Spain .

D)  launching an all out naval attack on France and England .

E)  using economics as a diplomatic weapon in “peaceful coercion.”


24.   Which of the following accurately characterizes the foreign policy goals of Jefferson and Madison before 1812?

A)  Strengthen U.S. trade relations with Britain and France .

B)  Maintain U.S. neutral rights without going to war.

C)  Seek an alliance with either Britain or France .

D)  Explore various means for acquiring Canada .

E)  Provide aid to independence movements in the Caribbean .


25.  Jefferson 's Embargo Act

A)  was readily supported by New England merchants.

B)  seriously damaged the British economy.

C)  brought an alliance with France .

D)  stopped the British practice of impressment.

E)  created more economic harm than good for the United States .

26.  All of the following contributed to the U.S. decision to go to war in 1812 except

A)  the election and influence of war hawks to Congress in 1810.

B)  the desire to acquire parts of Canada .

C)  British impressment of American sailors.

D)  efforts to protect the lands of native Americans.

E)  the desire for neutrality on the seas.


27.   The Battle of New Orleans resulted in

A)  The British being convinced to end the war.

B)  British forces retreating upon discovering how strong American defenses were.

C)  British forces being annihilated by Andrew Jackson and his troops.

D)  British forces winning and forcing the surrender of the city.

E)  Andrew Jackson proving to be an ineffective political leader.


28.  The Treaty of Ghent

A)  awarded part of Canada to the U.S.

B)  recognized United States neutrality on the seas.

C)  did little more than end hostilities and postpone other issues for future negotiations.

D)  restored Quebec to France .

E)  gave the British navigation rights on the Mississippi River .


Chapter 9- Building a Nation


29.   The most common description of frontier life in the 1820s and 1830s would be

A)  ranch devoted to raising beef cattle.

B)  communally owned and operated farm.

C)  Natty Bumpo like people.

D)  family farm with community support.

E)       small frontier settlement.


30.   One of the most significant factors contributing to the Panic of 1819 was the

A)  National and state banks overextending credit to speculators.

B)  rechartering of the Bank of the United States .

C)  building of roads and canals..

D)  the decline of the Federalist Party.

E)       The regionalization of the American Economy.


31.   All of the following were significant transportation modes of the 1800s through the 1830s except

A)  the wide use of trains for transporting goods.

B)  two way steamboat travel on the Mississippi .

C)  the use of crushed rock roads.

D)  flatboat trade down the Mississippi River .

E)       a canal system allowing for east-west trade.


32.   All of the following were characteristic of the nationalist expansionist movement of the early 1800s except

A)  Settlement of the plains, known as the "great American desert".

B)  the Adams-Onis Treaty.

C)  Jackson's attack on the Seminoles of Florida.

D)  The extermination of the Sac and Fox.

E)       the ease with which squatters could buy land they improved.


33.   The irony of the improved transportation network of the 1820s was that it

A)  was supported wholeheartedly by the federal government.

B)  resulted in a greater dependence on English goods.

C)  added to the nation’s sectionalism by creating regional economies.

D)  resulted in a move toward a credit based market economy.

E)  slowed the population growth of the nation.






34.   Which one of the following was NOT a factor in making the South the world's greatest producer of cotton?

A)  the availability of good land in Alabama , Mississippi and Louisiana .

B)  the existence of slavery in the South.

C)  the invention of the cotton gin.

D)  the discovery of a seedless species of cotton.

E)  demand created by the growing textile industry in England and New England .


35.   Henry Clay's "American System" included all of the following except

A)  the push for increased trade between sections of the nation.

B)  internal improvements.

C)  importation of more British manufactured goods.

D)  protective tariffs.

E)  industrial growth.


36.   Which of the following policies were Madison and Monroe most wary of supporting due to the question of its constitutionality?

A)  Federal funding of road improvements.

B)  The Tariff of 1816.

C)  The establishment of the Second National Bank of the U.S.

D)  Stimulation of industrial growth.

E)  Industrial independence of the nation.



37.   The president most closely identified with the "Era of Good Feelings" was

A)  James Monroe.

B)  John Quincy Adams .

C)  Thomas Jefferson.

D)  James Madison.

E)  Andrew Jackson.


38.   The Missouri Compromise included all of the provisions except

A)  slavery would be disallowed in the Louisiana territory above 36 30'.

B)  Maine would enter the Union as a free state .

C)  Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state.

D)  the Talmadge Amendment.

E)  slavery would be allowed in the Louisiana territory below 36 30'.


39.   In 1820 the Missouri issue was viewed mainly as a

A)  battle over state's rights.

B)  battle over the legality of the institution of slavery.

C)  battle over the right to nullification.

D)  battle over the political balance of power between the north and south.

E)  dead issue.


40.   A major effect of John Marshall's Supreme Court decisions was to

A)  Expand federal power and limit the states' powers.

B)  Expand the states' powers and limit federal power.

C)  Declare federal laws unconsitutional.

D)  Protect and enlarge the jurisdiction of state courts.

E)  Legitimize a strict interpretation of the U.S. Constitution.


41.   Which of the following Marshall Court rulings expanded the navigation of rivers into interstate commerce.

A)  Marbury v. Madison .

B)  McCulloch v. Maryland .

C)  Gibbons v. Ogden .

D)  Dartmouth College v. Woodward.

E)  The Missouri Compromise.






42.   The decisions of the Marshall court would most likely have won the approval of

A)  James Madison.

B)  John Calhoun.

C)  Thomas Jefferson.

D)  George Washington.

E)  Alexander Hamilton.


43.   The diplomatic challenge which resulted in the U.S. issuing the Monroe Doctrine was

A)  establishing friendly relations with France .

B)  responding to the revolt of Spain 's Latin American colonies.

C)  removing Native Americans from the frontier.

D)  the development of trading rights with Latin America .

E)  the continuing threat of English intervention in the United States .


44.   Which of the following statements accurately describes the Monroe Doctrine?

A)  It was announce multilaterally with Britain .

B)  It caused and immediate change in the role of the U.S. in world affairs.

C)  It declared U.S. opposition to European intervention in the affairs of independent countries of the western hemisphere.

D)  It is established the U.S. as the strongest naval power in the world.

E)  It resulted in the U.S. immediately sending troops into Mexico .



45.   Which of the following is most responsible for the 1812 to 1824 being labeled the era of good feelings?

A)  The Missouri Compromise of 1820.

B)  The fact that the Republicans remained unchallenged by another political party.

C)  Agreement of north and south on the slavery issue.

D)  The fact that the U.S. was becoming a regionally based economy.

E)  Agreement over federal financing of roads and canals.



United States History Test

Chapter 10, 11,12

Choose the best answer.

1.   During the 1820s and 1830s, the period of Jacksonian democracy, which of the following groups experienced the largest growth of democratic reform?

A)  Native Americans.

B)  White unpropertied males.

C)  African Americans.

D)  White propertied males.

E)  White propertied women.


2.  Which of the following areas is least associated with Jacksonian Democracy?

A)  Declining spirit of deference to aristocracy.

B)  Increasing participation in politics.

C)  Strides toward creating economic equality.

D)  A more open process for nominating candidates.

E)  Increasing respect for the self made common man.


3.  A political idea existing in the Jacksonian political system, different from that of the Federalist-Republican system and the era of good feelings was that

A)  A one party system is most desirable.

B)  The spoils system was a bad idea.

C)  Campaigns and elections should be void of partisan politics.

D)  Parties should be controlled only by the elite.

E)  Party opposition could exist, without fundamentally challenging the republic.


4.   All of the following were cultural aspects of Jacksonian democracy EXCEPT

A)  The attendance of all classes of society at the theatre.

B)  The disdain for any type of Greek or Roman architecture.

C)  The rise of the literacy rate.

D)  The paintings of Mount and Bingham depicting scenes of everyday life.

E)  The adoption of wearing pants instead of knee breeches by all classes.


5.   Which of the following is NOT accurate concerning the Election of 1824?

A)  John Quincy Adams lost the electoral vote.

B)  Henry Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams.

C)  It ended the political aspirations of Andrew Jackson.

D)  Andrew Jackson won the popular vote.

E)  The final outcome was decided upon in the House of Representatives.


6.   All of the following served to undermine the Presidency of John Quincy Adams EXCEPT

A)  The fact that Jackson had more popular and electoral votes, but lost the election.

B)  His role in issuing the Monroe Doctine, before his presidency.

C)  The apparent "Corrupt Bargain" between he and Henry Clay.

D)  The passage of the Tariff of Abominations in 1828.

E)  Growing resistance to the American System that Adams supported.


7.   Jackson 's creation of the kitchen cabinet and his belief that the common man should be involved in government are examples that would best legitimize which of the following characteristics of Jacksonian politics?

A)  The Spoils System.

B)  Stump speeches.

C)  The use of veto.

D)  Mudslinging.

E)  Logrolling.


8.   Andrew Jackson's policy toward Native Americans was that

A)  They should be treated as equals to the white man.

B)  They should be removed to areas beyond the Mississippi River .

C)  They should be assimilated into white society.

D)  They should be executed.

E)  They should be allowed to remain on their tribal lands within states.



9.   Jackson 's stand on which of the following issues most clearly lines him up with the expansion of federal power over state governments?

A)  Denouncing the claim of nullification.

B)  Refusing to enforce Worcester v. Georgia .

C)  Compromising on the Tariff of 1833.

D)  Acting quickly on the issue of Native American Removal.

E)  Attacking the National Bank.


10.  Due to its organization, a fundamental Jacksonian criticism of the national bank was that

A)  it failed completely to meet its financial responsibilities.

B)  it was a tool of the Democratic party.

C)  it worked against the ideas of the Americans System.

D)  it was mismanaged by Nicholas Biddle.

E)  it concentrated too much power in the hands of the privileged.


11.   The chief weapon used by Andrew Jackson in his attempt to destroy the National Bank was...

A)  to reverse the McCulloch v. Maryland decision.

B)  to pay government debts from tariff revenue only.

C)  the decision to print more paper money.

D)  to deposit federal government money in selected state banks.

E)  to propose and have a law passed closing the banks before the charter ran out.


12.   In the 1830s and 1840s, the primary difference between Whigs and the Democrats was that

A)  the Whigs favored an expanded, activist federal government while the Democrats favored a limited non-interventionist government.

B)  the Democrats were strongly supported by evangelical Christians and supported a wide range of moral reforms, while the Whigs were supporters of westerners who favored individual choice over morally based restrictions on behavior.

C)  the Whigs favored limitations on westward expansion while the Democrats favored expansion to the Pacific Ocean .

D)  the Democrats favored the abolition of slavery wile the Whigs sought to  protect it.

E)  the Whigs favored an agrarian based economy while the Democrats favored a federally funded indurstrial based economy.


13.   All of the following can be directly or indirectly linked as an effect of the Jacksonian presidency EXCEPT

A)  The nomination of General William Henry Harrison as a Whig in 1840.

B)  The strengthening of the Whig party in the 1830s.

C)  The election of Martin Van Buren in 1836.

D)  The Panic of 1837.

E)  The immediate end to the spoils system.


14  The Second Great Awakening  movement in New England began as

A) a result of the actions of social radicals in religion.

B) an outgrowth of Deism.

C) an attempt to encourage abolition of slavery.

D) an attempt to maintain the status quo in religion.

E) an effort to defend Calvinism against Enlightenment ideas.


15.  The reform movement did NOT inspire

A) the growth of a temperance movement societies.

B) the establishment of missionary societies.

C) the elevation of women out of the cult of domesticiy.

D) the  idea of "free agency" in religion.

E) the publication and increased circulation of religious tracts.


16.  As a reform effort, the temperance movement

A) had little impact outside religious circles.

B) was directed at a serious social problem among the working class.

C) was only moderately successful.

D) was the most successful of all reform movements of this period.

E) emphasized religious more than social concerns.







17.  An important change in the American family in the nineteenth century was

A) the increase in the size of the family.

B) the decreased importance of the extended family.

C) the large movement of women outside the sphere of domesticity.

D) the loss of many legal rights by men.

E) the growing significance of mutual affection in marriage.


18.  As a result of changes in the middle-class family, nineteenth-century children

A) increasingly became viewed as individuals to be cherished.

B) became more available for labor.

C) received more physical punishment than earlier generations.

D) left home sooner.

E) became alcoholics in opposition to the temperance movement.


19.  The most important function of the school during the reform era

A) preparing students for attending universities.

B) vocational training.

C) child care.

D) moral indoctrination and teaching self-discipline.

E) intellectual training.


20.  Historians have evaluated abolitionism of the 1840s as

A) successfully turning most Americans against slavery.

B) successfully bringing slavery to the forefront of the American consciousness.

C) winning powerful supporters throughout the country.

D) having little effect (positive or negative) on the South.

E) a means of encouraging racism against immigrants.


21.  Which of the following individuals is incorrectly matched with his or her reform movement?

A) William Lloyd Garrison--abolition

B) Dorothea Dix--anti-war.

C) Lyman Beecher--temperance.

D) Horace Mann--public schools.

E) Elizabeth Cady Stanton--women's rights.


22.  Which of the following is true of the American transcendentalists?

A) they supported government actions and regulations as the solution to social problems.

B) they argued for the importance of human intuition and individualism.

C) they were persecuted for their radical religious views.

D) they belonged to an experimental commune that practiced plural marriage.

E) they played a leading role in starting the Second Great Awakening.


23.  Perfectionist aspirations to create a utopian society are best reflected in

A) the Hudson River School .

B) Thoreau's experiment at Walden Pond .

C) the American Colonization Society.

D) the organizing of revivalist camp meetings.

E) the founding of New Harmony , Brook Farm and Phourier Phalanx communities.


24. Which of the following was NOT a goal of the Young America movement?

A) economic expansion and growth.

B) technological progress

C) the celebration of the unique virtues of the United States .

D) territorial expansion.

E) avoidance of conflicts with foreign powers.


25.  All of the following caused tensions between the residents of Texas and the Mexican government in the 1820's and 1830's EXCEPT

A) Texans' evasion of import duties on goods imported from the United States .

B) the desire of Texans for local self-government.

C) Mexico's insistence that Texans convert to Roman Catholicism.

D) Mexico 's prohibition of further American immigration into Texas .

E) Mexico 's support for and protection of Americans use of slavery in the territory of Texas .


26.  In the presidential election of 1844,

A) The Liberty Party won many votes in New York that otherwise would have been cast for the Democrats

B) James K. Polk called for the annexation of Texas and Oregon .

C) The overwhelming popular vote gave James K. Polk an undisputed mandate to implement his campaign promises.

D) James K. Polk campaigned openly for expansion as a means of creating more slaveholding territories.

E) Issues of foreign policy did not receive much attention.


27.For an antebellum (pre-Civil War) American, Manifest Destiny meant that...

A) Slavery would eventually become economically unprofitable and die out.

B) Slavery would eventually expand to all territories acquired from Mexico .

C) God had ordained that the United States would eventually and inevitably come into possession of the entire continent of North America .

D) The United States would eventually dominate the Pacific trade routes with Asia .

E) The Whig Party was destined to become the dominant national political party.


28.  James Polk sought a war with Mexico PRIMARILY in order  ...

A) to force the cession of New Mexico and California .

B) to prevent a Mexican attempt to reacquire Texas .

C) to win support from Whigs in his campaign for reelection.

D) to ensure the survival and extension of slavery.

E) to retaliate for Mexico 's harsh treatment of Texans.


29.  The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for all of the following EXCEPT...

A) Mexicans residents in annexed U.S. territories became American citizens.

B) The border between the United States and Oregon was established at the 49th parallel.

C) The United States government assumed the claims of American citizens against Mexico .

D) The Rio Grande River was recognized as the border between Mexico and the United States .

E) Mexico ceded New Mexico and California to the United States for 15 million dollars.


30.The transformation of the American economy in the 1840s and 1850s was primarily the result of

A) the establishment of free trade with all nations.

B) the canal systems.

C) the railroad.

D) new agricultural technology.

E) new banking systems.


31.  The Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 settled a boundary dispute between ____________ over ______________.

A)     the U.S. and Mexico , Arizona and Sonora .

B)      the U.S. and Canada , Maine .

C) the U.S. and Spain , Cuba and Puerto Rico .

D) England and the U.S. , British Honduras .

E) the U.S. and Canada , Oregon .


32.  According to the distinguished scholar Norman Graebner, the fervor of Manifest Destiny came to an end because...

A) U.S. army soldiers were tired of fighting.

B) the California harbors of San Francisco and San Diego had been secured for the U.S. , and this was the real interest all along.

C) continuing to take territory would result in ruling a large number of non-Americans.

D) the British were making there prescence know in Mexico .

E) continued assault on Mexico would result in confronting a strong Mexican army.


33.  Which of the following best reflected the idea of manifest destiny?

A) The signing of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.

B) Henry Clay's position on Texas in the election of 1844.

C) The establishment of Texas as an independent republic.

D) The campaign platform of James K. Polk in 1844.

E) Northern Whigs' view of the Mexican War.



US History

Chapter 13 and 14 Test

 Multiple Choice. 

1)  A primary economic difference between the states of the Upper South and those of the Deep South in the antebellum years was that...

A) The Upper South was much more dependent upon slave labor.

B) The Upper South was more agriculturally diversified.

C) The Deep South was more industrialized.

D) The plantation form of agriculture was more common in the Upper South.

E) The Upper South was more dependent on the cultivation of cotton.


2)  Which of the following developments most directly impacted the strengthening of the institution of slavery in the South?

A) Decreased output of abolitionist literature.

B) The spread of slave ownership to a large majority of southern whites.

C) The invention of the cotton gin and increased cultivation of short staple cotton.

D) The rise of tobacco as the South's major export crop.

E) The rapid industrialization of the North.


3)  The best evidence that "Cotton was king!" in antebellum South was that...

A) Cotton brought a high degree of prosperity to virtually all Southerners.

B) Every region of the South was equally dependent on the cultivation of cotton.

C) Cotton was unaffected by market fluctuations.

D) Cotton accounted for over 1/2 of the value of American exports.

E) Cotton required much less labor than other agricultural commodities.


4)  Non-slaveholding whites tended to support the institution of slavery and defend it against abolitionist attacks for all of the following reasons EXCEPT...

A) Many aspired to become slaveholders themselves.

B) They regarded and respected large planters as their superiors and always tended to follow their lead on political and social issues.

C) They thought the freeing of the slaves would threaten their own freedom and independence.

D) They did not want to compete with freed slaves for land or jobs.

E) Slavery tended to uphold the belief of poor whites that they were members of something besides the lowest class.


5)  Southern pro-slavery arguments did NOT include the belief that...

A) African American slaves were incapable of caring for themselves and therefore required white supervision.

B) The Bible and Christianity supported slavery.

C) African American slaves were innately inferior to whites.

D) Slavery was only a temporary condition that would yield eventually to full emancipation for all blacks.

E) Slavery was more humane than the treatment of free industrial workers in the North.


6)  Southern planters MOST OFTEN regarded their slaves as...

A) naturally hard-working and industrious.

B) skilled and motivated partners in running the plantation.

C) subhuman creatures without any morals or virtues.

D) children who required constant supervision, discipline and care.

E) their intellectual equals who had become slaves through bad fortune.


7)  Which of the following was the LEAST COMMON form of slave resistance in the antebellum South?

A) Armed uprisings.

B) Running away.

C) Theft of plantation provisions.

D) Sabotage of plantation tools and equipment.

E) Working slowly and inefficiently.


8)  In the antebellum United States , free African American...

A) Were readily accepted.

B) Enjoyed the same political rights and economic opportunities as whites.

C) Were almost nonexistent.

D) Were treated as social outcasts.

E) Did not assist in operating the Underground Railroad.


9)  The religion of slaves most emphasized...

A) Passive acceptance of the condition of slavery.

B) Violent rebellions against slaveholding whites.

C) The sinfulness of all men and the forgiveness of the sins of slaveholders.

D) Suppression of one's emotions.

E) Celebration of life and the ultimate delivery from the bondage of slavery in this life or the afterlife.


10)  While class differences are based on income, caste differences in the South were based on

A) religion.

B) the number of slaves a person owned.

C) plantation size.

D) national origins.

E) race.


11)    The primary goal of the Free-Soil movement that arose in the late 1840s was to …

A.      prevent the extension of slavery into newly acquired territories

B.       permit the introduction of slavery into any U.S. territory

C.       secure a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery in the United States

D.      prevent the admission of Oregon to the Union as a state

E.       convince Southerners to voluntarily & gradually emancipate their slaves


12)    According to the idea of “squatter” or “popular sovereignty” …

A.   Congress would determine whether a territory would have slavery.

B.    the Supreme Court would determine whether a territory would have slavery.

C.       the settlers of new territories would determine whether or not slavery would be permitted.

D.      only those who already owned slaves could bring them into a territory.  

E.       slavery would not be permitted in any US territory. 


13)    Which of the following was a provision of the “Compromise of 1850”?

A.      California entered the Union as a slave state

B.       Utah and New Mexico entered the Union as free states

C.       A more effective Fugitive Slave Law was passed limiting the rights of suspected fugitives

D.      The Missouri Compromise line of 1820 was extended to the Pacific Ocean

E.       Slavery was prohibited in all territories acquired in the Mexican-American War


14)    The Second Party System found itself in crisis in the early 1850s PRIMARILY because the two main parties …

A.      Clashed bitterly with each other over the issue of slavery

B.       Failed to offer clear-cut alternatives to the electorate

C.       Each lacked strong, effective leaders

D.      Each called for the unlimited expansion of slavery in territories

E.       Refused to support the Compromise of 1850


15)    Which of the following statements regarding the Kansas-Nebraska Act is TRUE?

A.      It admitted both Kansas and Nebraska to the Union as slave states.

B.       It was generally favored by Northerners and opposed by Southerners.

C.       It helped heal sectional differences and delay the outbreak of the Civil War.

D.      It repealed the Missouri Compromise line dividing free states from slave in the Louisiana Territory .

E.       It was proposed by Abraham Lincoln.


16)    The primary goal of the American Party (the “Know-Nothings”) was to …

A.      Abolish slavery in the United States

B.       Restrict immigration and suppress the influence of Irish and German immigrants

C.       Base the admission of new states into the Union on the popular sovereignty principle

D.      Protect the interests of American industry

E.       Make slavery legal in all federal territories


17)     The Republican Party was formed in response to which of the following issues?

A.      The massive influx of immigrants into the US

B.       The desire to build a transcontinental railroad

C.       The desire to lessen sectional tensions

D.      Falling prices for agricultural produce 

E.       Extension of slavery into the territories

18)    In the Dred Scott decision the Supreme Court ruled that…

A.      Dred Scott was a free man because of the time he had spent in a free territory.

B.       Slaves were citizens of the United States .

C.       Congress had no right to prohibit slavery in the territories.

D.      The extension of slavery was unconstitutional.

E.       Slaves could not be transported across state lines.


19)     The Lecompton Constitution …

A.      Abolished slavery in Kansas

B.       Was vigorously supported by Stephen Douglas

C.       Was produced by antislavery forces when proslavery forces boycotted the constitutional convention

D.      Was accepted by Congress with little opposition

E.       Was the result of a pro-slavery rigged election for convention delegates


20)    Which of the following statements INACCURATELY represents Lincoln ’s pre Civil War views on slavery?

A.      Slavery was morally wrong.

B.       Slavery should not be allowed to spread beyond where it already existed.

C.       Slavery should be ended immediately.

D.      Freed slaves should not be granted the full rights of citizenship.

E.       The United States could not continue indefinitely as a half-free, half-slave country.


21)    According to Stephen Douglas’s “ Freeport doctrine” …

A.      A territorial legislature had no authority to prohibit slavery

B.       States could in effect prohibit slavery by refusing to pass laws protecting the property of slaveholders

C.       The United States would eventually have to become all slave or all free

D.      The Dred Scott decision provided evidence of a Southern plot to legalize slavery throughout the US

E.       Prohibitions against slavery was a violation of property rights


22)    As a result of the 1858 Illinois Lincoln-Douglas senatorial campaign …

A.      Stephen Douglas lost crucial political support in the Southern states

B.       Lincoln ’s political career went permanent eclipse

C.       Lincoln won a position in the Senate from which to advance the Republican cause

D.      The Democratic Party became the dominant party in the North

E.       Lincoln ’s belief in the equality of the races became nationally known


23)    Following John Brown’s raid at Harper’s Ferry …

A.      Southerners were alarmed and angered by the widespread expressions of Northern sympathy for Brown

B.       A series of slave revolts broke out throughout Virginia and the Carolinas

C.       Southerners realized that extremists like John Brown had no ties to Northern abolitionists

D.      Southerners became convinced that a slave revolt could never succeed

E.       Northern support for abolitionism plummeted


24)    Which of the following would a Northern opponent of slavery have been most likely to support?

A.      Preston Brooks’s attack on Charles Sumner

B.       The Dred Scott decision

C.       The Wilmot Proviso

D.      Popular sovereignty in the territories

E.       The LeCompton Constitution


25)    A proslavery Southerner would have been MOST concerned by which of the following?

A.      John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry

B.       The Lecompton Constitution

C.       The Dred Scott decision

D.      The Kansas-Nebraska Act

E.       The rise of the Know-Nothing Party


26)    Hinton R. Helper’s Impending Crisis of the South contributed to sectional tensions by calling for …

A.      Violent slave uprisings against Southern whites

B.       The abolition of slavery in federal territories

C.       Lower-class Southern whites to resist the dominance of planters and abolish slavery

D.      The immediate execution of any slave caught attempting to escape

E.       The annexation of Caribbean islands that might eventually become slave states


27)    In the presidential campaign of 1860 the Republicans …

A.      Supported popular sovereignty in the territories

B.       Called for the abolition of slavery everywhere in the United States

C.       Won significant support from all regions of the country

D.      Alarmed Southerners with their free soil platform

E.       Ignored the slavery issue.


28)    According to the textbook author, the MOST encompassing explanation for the timing of the Civil War is …

A.      The conflict between the economic interests of the agrarian South and the industrial North

B.       Irresponsible politicians who stirred up public opinion against the opposing section

C.       The widespread efforts of Northern abolitionists  to liberate Southern slaves through violence

D.      Republican support for the gradual, compensated emancipation of Southern slaves

E.       Cultural and Social differences between the North and South had finally manifested themselves within 2 sectional political parties.


29)    The most effective, popular work of 1850s literary abolitionism was produced by …

A.      Herman Melville

B.       Edgar Allen Poe

C.       Henry David Thoreau

D.      Harriet Beecher Stowe

E.       Ralph Waldo Emerson


30)    According to the After the Fact article concerning John Brown,  his madness can best be explained by

A.      the fact that he lost his marble.

B.       the fact that his mother died when he was young

C.       the fact that he was attempting to merge the ambivalent feelings he had toward his father.

D.      the fact that he failed at business.

E.       the fact that he many of his pets died when he was young.


31)    According to Zach, Daniel, Spencer and Michael,  John Brown’s final diagnosis was

A.   that his father had a high pitched voice.

B.   that as a child he was a great artist.

C.   that he had jungle fever.

D.   that he pined for his dead mother.

E.    that he pined for his tailess squirrel.


32)    “I am a southerner!...Calhoun!”  This intellectual statement was uttered by

A.   The Little Giant.

B.   The Great Pacificator.

C.   Andrew Franklin.

D.   Old Rough and Ready.

E.    Sam Oddi


33)  Based on reviews of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which of the following is the least legitimate statement?

A.   Reviews from northern critics generally applauded the work.

B.   Reviews from southern critics generally attacked the work for its inaccuracies.

C.   Most of the reviews we examined lacked literary critique.

D.   The position that women should remain within the sphere of domesticity was prevalent in the north and south.

E.    The north readily accepted the notion of equality and mixing of the races.



Chapter 15 and 16 Test

Choose the best answer.

Chapter 15-The Civil War

1. _____ The Crittenden Compromise attempted to avert war by …

A.  Applying the concept of “popular sovereignty” to all states and territories

B.  Providing for the gradual emancipation of all slaves over a period of 25 years

C.  Extending the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Ocean

D.  Calling for a new presidential election

E.  Allowing slave states to count all slaves when determining congressional representation


2. _____ All of the following states unilaterally seceded in the months immediately following Lincoln ’s election EXCEPT

A.  Virginia  B.  Georgia        C.  South Carolina    D.  Alabama    E.  Mississippi


3. _____ The new constitution adopted by the Confederate States of America

A.  Was radically different from the U.S. constitution

B.  Created an aristocratic government dominated by large slaveholders

C.  Reopened the slave trade

D.  Gave the central government much more authority than the U.S. federal government possessed

E.  Was a moderate document that placed strict limits on the central government’s authority to interfere with slavery


4. _____ As a result of the 1861 conflict at Fort Sumter ,

A.  The Union assumed responsibility for firing the first shot in the Civil War

B.  Hundreds of Union soldiers were killed

C.  The Union wonits first victory of the war

D.  Several states of the Upper South decided to secede rather than support the Union forces

E.  Support for the war in the North plummeted


5. _____ Northern advantages in the earliest stages of the Civil War included all of the following EXCEPT

A.  A superior navy

B.  A populace firmly united behind the President’s war aim of freeing the slaves.

C.  A superior railroad network

D.  A larger population

E.  A greater capacity to produce military equipment


6. _____ All of the following were part of the initial Union strategy to win the Civil War EXCEPT

A.  A naval blockade of southern ports

B.  Control of the Mississippi River

C.  The capture of Richmond

D.  Keeping the border states in the Union

E.  Emancipation of slaves in the seceded states


7. _____ When Lincoln ’s leadership is compared with that of Jefferson Davis, it is evident that …

A.  Lincoln was less willing to interfere with citizens’ civil liberties

B.  Davis took a hands off approach concerning military strategy.

C.  Davis was more capable of dealing with domestic problems on the home front.

D.  Lincoln had the advantage of the backing of a strong political party for his policies

E.  Lincoln tolerated no public criticism of his administration


8. _____ The South expected the British to intervene on the Confederate side PRIMARILY because …

A.  Most Englishmen supported the institution of slavery

B.  The British textile industry depended heavily on imports of Southern cotton

C.  Union vessels often violated the neutrality of British shipping in the Atlantic

D.  The North had fired the first shots of the war

E.  The British upheld the right of regions of a country to secede


9. _____ The Confederate government was able to achieve which of the following goals?

A.  Recognition by the powers of Europe

B.  Control of Maryland and areas around Washington D.C.

C.  A strong central government

D.  A transportation system capable of keeping its forces well-supplied

E.  Control of the coastline


10 _____ President Lincoln was reluctant to emancipate the slaves in the first year of the Civil War because

A.  He feared that freeing the slaves would bring England and France into the war

B.  Slaves seemed to have little desire to seek protection and freedom from Union forces

C.  He did not believe this move would have much impact on the Southern economy

D.  He feared that emancipation would drive the border states out of the Union

E.  He had little sympathy for the plight of the slaves


11. _____ Which of the following best describes the immediate effect of the Emancipation Proclamation?

A.  Slaves in the border states were freed

B.  Slaves in the Deep South became free

C.  The abolition of slavery in Confederate territory became one of the North’s war goals

D.  Lincoln ’s reelection in 1864 was assured

E.  Northerners overwhelmingly supported the cause of the fight as abolition


12. _____ Which of the following most accurately describes Confederate military strategy?

A.  The abandonment of Richmond   to Union forces while defending the Deep South

B.  The conquest and occupation of large areas of the North

C.  Avoidance of all set battles with Union forces & reliance on guerrilla raids

D.  Stopping Northern incursions into the South while making occasional forays into the North when opportunities arose

E.  A naval blockade of Northern ports to prevent trade with Europe


13. _____ As a result of the Battle of Antietam …

A.  The Union blockade of the South was broken

B.  Great Britain decided to extend diplomatic recognition to the Confederacy

C.  The Confederate war effort collapsed and Lee surrendered within a few months

D.  Lincoln decided to issue the Emancipation Proclamation

E.  Union forces captured Richmond


14. _____ Which of  the following is considered to be the main turning point of the war?

A.  Vicksburg and Gettysburg   B.  Chancellorsville   C.  Antietam  D.  Fredericksburg   E.  Second Bull Run


15. _____ During the Civil War the term "Copperhead" referred to …

A.  Radical Republicans who fought for a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery

B.  Southerners who decided to join the Union army

C.  Businessmen who profited from the sale of shoddy military supplies

D.  Slaves who escaped to Union lines

E.  Northerners who wanted to bring an immediate end to the war


16. _____ Which of the following was the least significant factor in the defeat of the South in 1865 ?

A.  Shortages caused by the Union naval blockade

B.  Slave uprisings against southern plantations

C.  Grant’s war of attrition in Virginia

D.  Sherman ’s march through Georgia

E.  The Confederacy’s failure to obtain foreign intervention


17. _____ One of the long-term political consequences of northern victory was …

A.  Final defeat of the southern concept of the notion of nullification

B.  Dominance of the Republican party in the South well into the 20th century

C.  Continuing sectional conflict over the issue of slavery

D.  A balance of power in Congress between the North and South

E.  Suspension of the writ of habeas corpus for American citizens












18. _____ Place the following events in chronological order


                I. Sherman ’s March Through Georgia

                II. Battle of Antietam

                III. Secession of South Carolina

                IV. Emancipation Proclamation

                V. Fort Sumter


A.  II, III, V, I, IV

B.  III, II, V, IV, I

C.  IV, V, I, III, II

D.  III, V, II, IV, I

E.  III , V, IV, I, II




Name: _____________________________

Chapter 16 - Reconstruction


19.     _____ Lincoln ’s plans for Reconstruction were designed to …

A.      Punish the South for provoking the Civil War

B.       Secure racial equality for freed slaves

C.       Ensure that the administration and Congress shared responsibility for the reconstruction of the South

D.      Readmit the states of the Confederacy into the Union as rapidly as possible

E.       Provide substantial federal aid to rebuild the South


20.     _____ As early as 1863, Lincoln proposed a plan for restoring Southern state governments based on _________ percent of the voting population of 1860 taking a loyalty oath to the Union .

A.      10

B.       50

C.       25

D.      2

E.       80


21.     _____ At the end of the Civil War, MOST congressional Republicans believed that …

A.      Any Reconstruction plans should include African American suffrage

B.       The president should be given sole authority to establish Reconstruction policies

C.       Former Confederate leaders should not play a role in Reconstruction governments

D.      Former Confederate states should be quickly readmitted to the Union

E.       Former Confederate states should be treated leniently by the Union


22.     _____ The July 1864 Wade-Davis bill …

A.      Passed with the strong support of President Lincoln

B.       Required that 10% of a Southern state’s voters take an oath of loyalty to the Union before it could be readmitted

C.       Extended the suffrage to freed slaves

D.      Authorized the seizure of all property belonging to former Confederate officers and office holders

E.       Would have imposed tougher conditions for the readmission of Confederate states than those sought by Lincoln




23.     _____ Andrew Johnson …

A.      Was a vehement opponent of slavery and the oppression of blacks

B.       Was among the most educated men ever to hold the office of president

C.       Had supported the secession of his home state of Tennessee from the Union

D.      Was a white supremacist Democrat--who happened to become President upon Lincoln ’s death

E.       Would have no idea how to measure a person’s in-seam







24.     _____ All of the following increased congressional impatience with and  opposition to President Johnson’s Reconstruction policy EXCEPT

A.      Johnson’s steadfast refusal to offer pardons to ex-Confederate leaders

B.       The passage of “Black Codes” by new Southern legislatures

C.       The failure of the new Southern constitutions to extend the suffrage to blacks

D.      The election of ex-Confederate leaders to Congress

E.       Johnson’s willingness to give Southern whites a free hand in dealing with freed blacks


25.     _____ Radical or Congressional Reconstructionists, felt that long term success of reconstruction depended on…

A.      Black suffrage

B.       The redistribution of large white landholdings among former slaves

C.       Federal aid for Southern schools

D.      Extended military occupation of the South

E.       Federal grants and loans to enable poor blacks to establish themselves


26.     _____ Which of the following was NOT provided for African Americans during the height of congressional Reconstruction?

A.      Guarantee of U.S. citizenship

B.       Equal protection under the laws

C.       Parcels of confiscated Confederate farmlands

D.      Protection of their voting rights

E.       Equal access to public accommodations


27.     _____ President Johnson was impeached for …

A.      Vetoing the Civil Rights Act of 1866

B.       Refusing to support the 13th Amendment

C.       Accepting bribes from former Confederate leaders

D.      Violating the Tenure of Office Act passed by Congress

E.       Violating the property rights of former Southern planters


28.     _____ Which of the following is an INCORRECT match?

A.      Thirteenth Amendment – Abolished slavery

B.       Wade-Davis Bill – Embodied presidential Reconstruction

C.       Fourteenth Amendment – Extended civil rights to former slaves

D.      Fifteenth Amendment – Prohibited voting discrimination on the basis of race

E.       Freedman’s Bureau – Provided relief and assistance to former slaves


29. _____ Which of the following groups was not part of the tenuous Southern Republican coalition that supported Radical Reconstruction?

A.      Scalawags

B.       Poor white farmers from upland regions

C.       Newly enfranchised African Americans

D.      White planters

E.       Carpetbaggers


30. _____ All of the following undermined the strength of the Republican Party in the South EXCEPT

A.      Charges of corruption against the Grant administration

B.       Intimidation of blacks by the Ku Klux Klan

C.       Democratic appeals to white supremacy

D.      Northern disillusionment with the use of force to sustain Republican governments

E.       The Force Acts (or Ku Klux Klan Acts)


31. _____ The symbolic end of Reconstruction came in 1877 due to …

A.      A compromise agreement to resolve the disputed election of 1876

B.       The realization that Southern blacks no longer required federal protection for their civil rights

C.       The Supreme Court’s refusal to uphold the 14th Amendment

D.      The election of a Democratic president

E.       The successful suppression of the Ku Klux Klan by the Union army






32. _____ The “redeemers” in the South supported …

A.      Integrated schools and public facilities

B.       Laissez-faire and white supremacy

C.       Increased state spending for internal improvements

D.      Continued cooperation with the military to protect the freedmen

E.       Redemption of greenback dollars with gold


33. _____ Why did the battle over black suffrage ultimately divide the women’s rights movement?

A.      A substantial part of the movement did not believe that a constitutional amendment was necessary in order to gain the vote.

B.       Half of the movement did not believe that blacks would utilize the franchise responsibly.

C.       Some advocates of women’s rights refused to support black suffrage without attendant woman suffrage.

D.      The women’s rights movement had always avoided the debate over slavery and now feared being drawn into the debate over black rights.

E.       A significant part of the movement wanted to deny black women the vote.


34. _____ During Reconstruction scalawags were …

A.      Former slaveholders who opposed to the Southern Reconstruction governments

B.       Advocates of black rights and black suffrage in the South

C.       Freedmen who moved to northern cities for better economic opportunities

D.      Northerners who moved to the South in search of wealth and power

E.       Southern supporters of the Republican governments in the South


35. _____ By 1877, which of the following general goals of reconstruction was most successfully met?

A.      Reincorporating seceded states into the union.

B.       Transforming the slave economy into a thriving free economy.

C.       Protecting the long term political rights of freedmen.

D.      Protecting the social rights of freedmen.

E.       Rebuilding the infrastructure of the south.



Chapter 17,18,19 Test

Multiple Choice

1.   For the first two-thirds of the nineteenth century, Americans believed the land west of the Mississippi River to be

A.   part of Mexico .

B.   too heavily forested for farming.

C.   too mountainous to farm.

D.  bountiful.

E.   uninhabitable.


2.   In the 1850s, which of the following best describe the Plains tribes?

A.  savages who performed human sacrifice

B.   sedentary

C.   nomadic

D.   non-existent

E.   fishermen


3.   The initial government policy toward the Plains Indians in the 1830s was

A.   to give each Indian "40 acres and a mule" for farming.

B.   to define small reservations for each tribe.

C.   to assimilate them.

D.   to reserve land west of the Mississippi as the Great Reservation.

E.  to provoke intertribal warfare.


4.   The goal of the Dawes Severalty Act was to

A.   create schools for freedmen.

B.   offer land and citizenship to First Americans.

C.   encourage easterners to go west.

D.   encourage farmers to irrigate their land.

E.   greatly increased the power of tribal chiefs.


5.   The U.S. Native American policy that defined specific boundaries to specific tribes was known as __________.

A.   Assimilation.

B.   Fee Simple.

C.  Till the waters run dry.

D.  Allotment.

E.   Concentration.


6.   The most significant blow to Native American tribal life on the Plains was

A.   the reservation system.

B.   the extermination of the buffalo herds.

C.   incessant tribal warfare.

D.   the deaths of the major Indian leaders.

E.   the invention of barbed wire fences.


7.         All of the following were problems faced in the government efforts to distribute western lands EXCEPT

A.      The government discouraged settlement by charging too much for land

B.       Land allotments were often insufficient for the arid conditions of the Great Plains

C.       The start-up costs of farming  were often too high for the average settler

D.      There were insufficient safeguards against fraudulent land claims

E.       Limited water supplies in much of the West


8.   Westward migration in the post-Civil War period

A.   was stalled by the Mexican Army.

B.   was heaviest during economic prosperity.

C.   was inspired by religious missionaries seeking to convert the Indians.

D.  was mostly a phenomena for freed African American slaves.

E.  acted as a safety valve for discontented Americans.




9.    The first major industry to attract large numbers of people to the West was

A.   cattle ranching.

B.    gold mining.

C.   shepherding.

D.   farming.

E.   steel.


10.   Which of the following stimulated the western cattle industry?

A.   the decimation of the buffalo.

B.   railroads and a population increase in the eastern United States .

C.   court decisions that allowed livestock to be transported across state lines.

D.   the discovery of precious metals that made money available for investment in ranching.

E.   a decline in the amount of beef imported to the United States from Europe .


11.    According to Frederick Jackson Turner, the most decisive influence on American society was the existence of the

A.   First Americans.

B.   great mountain ranges.

C.   frontier.

D.   abundant forest land.

E.  coal and iron ore.


12.   The ___________ was established to help provide isolated farmers with social and cultural activities.

A.   Populist movement

B.  American Federation of Labor

C.  Knights of Labor

D.  National Grange

E.  Pony express


13.    Which of the following migrations does not accurately match the direction of movement?

A.   Cattle ranchers : south to north

B.   Exodusters:  from the south to the mid west

C.   Native Americans : west to east

D.   Miners : east to west to east

E.  Oregon Trail settlers: east to west


14.    The so-called "final fling" of settlement on the frontier was sooner or later going to happen in

A.   California .

B.   Oklahoma .

C.   Missouri .

D.  Utah

E.  Oregon .


15.    How did the American government affect industrial growth from the 1860s through 1890?

A.   It provided incentives for growth.

B.   It discouraged all immigration.

C.   It followed a strict policy of laissez faire.

D.  It balanced agrarian and industrial demands.

E.   It regulated, closely, the pace of the growth.


16.   Which of the following was the least important factor in American industrial development?

A.  availability of investment capital

B.   an abundance of natural resources

C.   a solid agricultural base

D.  a heavy influx of immigrants

E.   industrialization of the South






17. Which of the following was not a characteristic of the industrial magnates of the late 19th century?

A.      Ability to consolidate an industry

B.       Ability to produce high-quality goods at low cost

C.       Ability to maximize on government incentives

D.      Sympathy for the plight of industrial workers

E.       Willingness to ruthlessly suppress competitors


18.    Which of the following individuals is incorrectly associated with the industry he helped to found?

A.   Andrew Carnegie--steel

B.   Cornelius Vanderbilt--railroads

C.   Henry Bessemer--railroads

D.   J. P. Morgan--finance, railroads, steel

E.  John D. Rockefeller--oil


19.    During the 1880s, American railroads attempted to reach pooling agreements because they

A.   suffered from competition and over expansion.

B.   had consolidated into four major lines.

C.  had difficulty finding the capital to expand.

D.   needed to standardize the rail gauges.

E.   had eliminated competition.


20.    In this type of organization, a company owns all elements; from raw material to finished product.

A.   monopoly

B.   conglomerate

C.   vertical integration

D.   horizontal integration

E.  corporate management


21.    Unlike the Knights of Labor, the AFL

A.  advocated socialism.

B.   believed workers would rise in stature.

C.  emphasized skilled workers gaining a share of the rewards of capitalism.

D.  organized skilled and unskilled workers.

E.  organized a majority of the workers.


22.    The principle of the "iron law of wages" stated that

A.  supply and demand applied to a worker's wages.

B.  all workers should be treated the same.

C.   the quality of work should be determined by the managers.

D.   the government should establish a minimum wage.

E.   the welfare of the workers dictated wages.


23.    The results of which of the following would most be considered a victory for labor?

A.   the Supreme Court decision in Holden v. Hardy

B.  the Haymarket riot.

C.   the Debs decision.

D.  rejection of the iron law of wages theory.

E.   the Homestead riot.


24.   This industry was considered the nation's "first big business" as it laid the pathway for other monopolies

A.   agriculture

B.  oil

C.   railroads

D.  communications

E.   steel







25.      All of the following were demographic trends of the late 19th century except

F.       Eastern cities had increasingly large foreign born populations

G.       Racist and anti-immigrant groups increased in number

H.      The immigration of southern and eastern Europeans increased

I.         Movement of African Americans from the south to northern cities increased

J.        The urban population surpasses the rural population by 1890


26.      All of the following were organizations that attempted to assist immigrants except

F.       The Industrial Relocation Office

G.       The Irish Benevolent Society

H.      The American Protective Association

I.         The Polish National Alliance

J.        “Bosses” and their “political machines”  (Tweed Ring)


27.     Which of the following trends in society during the late 1800s is not correct …

F.       The rise in organized spectator sports

G.       Infant mortality rates decline due to discoveries in microbiology

H.      The middle-class woman breaks out of the sphere of domesticity

I.         The general birthrate for all classes declined

J.        Fashion dictated a looser style of clothing


28.     All of the following were seen as trends in the field of education at this time except

F.       Movement in Higher Education toward recitation of facts, and study of the classics

G.       The kindergarten movement

H.      Enforcement of Plessy vs.Ferguson

I.         The growth of Universities and colleges due to the  Morrill Land Grant Act

J.        The leadership of Charles Eliot encouraging a system of electives, lectures and discussions


29.     Which of the following reform movements is matched incorrectly?

A.      Mugwumps- worked to end corruption in politics

B.       WCTU- prohibitionist group

C.       National American Woman Suffrage Association- right to vote for women

D.      Hull House- studied and educated, and provided services for a neighborhood

E.       National Civic Federation- use of buying power of women to gain improved working conditions


30.    The new thinking in city-scape architecture made famous by Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright was

A.   elaborate Roman columns celebrating democracy.

B.  form following function.

C.   flying buttresses.

D.   the subway.

E.  the dumbbell tenement house.


31.    In the Victorian code of morality,

A.   wives were to be acknowledged as equal partners to their husbands.

B.   thinking outside the box was encouraged.

C.   strict standards of behavior should be followed.

D.   children were to be heard and not seen.

E.   males received more schooling than females.


32.   Elementary public schools in the 1870s and 1880s

A.   emphasized egalitarianism between students and teachers.

B.   ignored moral, religious education.

C.  vigorously stressed discipline and routine.

D.   placed greater value on educating females.

E.   were desegregated in the south.







33.    As a result of the Plessy v. Ferguson   and Cummings decision,

A.   de facto segregation could no longer occur.

B.   separate but equal was legal, even if there was no comparable school for African Americans

C.   integration of schools was to occur with deliberate speed.

D.   illiteracy among school age children would be eradicated.

E.   corporal punishment was made illegal.


34.    Booker T. Washington

A.   believed that slowly earning respect through hard work was the best plan for African Americans.

B.   believed African Americans should fight for equal rights.

C.   had little hope for the future of African Americans in American society.

D.   is the same person as George Washington Carver.

E.  emphasized the importance of a college education for African Americans.


35.    W.E.B. Du Bois

A.   advocated segregation of the races.

B.   supported the views of Booker T. Washington.

C.   believed in an aggressive educational advancement of the "talented tenth".

D.   was popular with white society.

E.   encouraged the overthrow of the government.


36.   Which of the following statements about late nineteenth-century immigrants is not true?

A.   Most were highly skilled craftsmen.

B.  Most settled along the Eastern seaboard.

C.   Most came seeking economic opportunities.

D.   Most were Europeans.

E.  Most were young males.


37.    The Social Darwinists

A.   had enormous influence on American society.

B.   encouraged churches to engage in the Social Gospel.

C.   were active reformers in the late nineteenth century.

D.   applied the law of natural selection to society.

E.   advocated government intervention in creating welfare programs.


38.   A Social Gospel minister believed that

A.  the church must actively participate in the reforming of  society.

B.  the environment controlled humankind.

C.  conditions of this world were of little importance.

D.   poverty was evidence of sinfulness.

E.  miserable living conditions would encourage the belief in an afterlife.

Chapter 20 Test

MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.


1)  Which of the following is a correct statement about national politics from the 1870s through 1896?

A) Congress focused on the problems of industrialization and urbanization.

B) The Presidents of the era expanded executive powers and clearly dominated Congress.

C) The two major parties were evenly entrenched, with just a few swing states.

D) Republicans held firm control of both Congress and the Presidency.

E) Lack of interest in national politics produced low voter turnout.


2)  All of the following were primarily designed to prevent African Americans from voting except,

A) Minor v. Happersett.

B) poll taxes.

C) the grandfather clause.

D) the literacy test.

E) The eight box law.


3)  Identification with the Republican and Democratic Parties of the 1870s was mainly founded on a person's

A) ethnic background

B) political ideology

C) religious beliefs

D) Civil War loyalties

E) economic standing


4)  Which of the following was NOT associated withthe  Republican party in the post-Civil War period?

A)  protective tariffs

B) support for freedmen suffrage

C) grants and subsidies to railroads

D) limited government power

E) an affinity for the gold standard


5)  The far reaching effect of the Supreme Court's decision in Munn v. Illinois was that

A) states could regulate only intrastate commerce.

B) bordering states could jointly regulate interstate commerce.

C) only the federal government could regulate intrastate trade.

D) it declared the ICC illegal.

E) private enterprise highly impacting public interest were subject to government regulation.


6)  The Pendleton Act of 1883,

A) eliminated all presidential appointments.

B) provided for appointment to a government job based on a Civil Service Exam.

C) allowed Congress greater power in appointing government jobs.

D) gave the judiciary greater power in the national government.

E) was signed into law by President James A. Garfield.


7)  What two issues dominated national politics in the late 19th century?

A) the money supply and the protective tariff.

B) wages and working conditions of factory workers.

C) overseas expansion and the growth of the military.

D) civil service reform and national politics.

E) pension reform and balancing the budget.


8)  Which of the following was NOT an accomplishment of the Billion Dollar Congress

A) McKinley Tariff Act

B) Sherman Antitrust Act

C) The Crime of 1873

D) Sherman Silver Purchase Act

E) Dependent Pensions Act





9)  What message did the actions of the Republican Congress of 1890 send?

A) that the federal government would focus on solving the problems off the farmer.

B) that the federal government would both support and mildly regulate business interests.

C) that big federal government was bad.

D) that the nation should return to that based on Jeffersonian ideals.

E) that the federal government was totally committed to an anti-immigration policy.


10)   Grover Cleveland was a good little Democrat of during his first term by being committed to 

A) increasing federal activities.

B) raising tariffs.

C) curtailing federal activities.

D) the gold standard.

E) laissez faire business practices.


11)  Prior to the "Crime of 1873"  the United States was on

A) the gold standard.

B) the silver standard.

C) the bimetallic system.

D) the greenback system.

E) the barter system because there was no national bank.


12)  Which of the following was NOT a reason for farm discontent in the late nineteenth century?

A) organizations such as the Grange and the Farm Alliance.

B) the declining price of farming goods.

C) the cost to transport goods by rail.

D) mortagages and debt.

E) the unpredictability of farming due to weather conditions in the plains.


13)  Based on the Ocala Demands, and the Omaha platform, which of the following was not a demand of the Populist Party?

A) maintenance of the gold standard.

B) creation of a subtreasury system.

C) the end of protective tariffs.

D) establishment of a federal income tax.

E) the direct election of Senators.


14)  In the 1880s, which of the following would be most likely to desire inflation?

A) A Republican President.

B) A Democratic President

C) an immigrant mineworker.

D) a midwest farmer.

E) a midwest farmer with a mortgage.


15)  In the election of 1896, the major issue was

A) the lowering of tariffs.

B) the free and unlimited coinage of silver.

C) the reduction of veterans' pensions.

D) the right of women to vote.

E) welfare for the unemployed.


16)  William Jennings Bryan was defeated in the election of 1896 because

A) He did not campaign directly among the voters.

B) He was unable to win Populist support.

C) His platform did not appeal to workers in the city.

D) Few voters were interested in the campaign.

E) He was terrible at giving speeches.







17)  All of the following resulted from the aftermath of the election of 1896 except

A) Democrats representing rural, farming interests and Republicans representing urban, business interests.

B) Republican domination of the federal government for most of the next 30 years.

C) the continued depression due to lack of gold supply and reserves.

D) the growing realization of the United States role as world leader.

E) A committment of the federal government to slowly growing the regulation of business.


18)  Which of the following statements is most closely associated with the Populist movement?

A) Support of labor unions.

B) The front porch campaign.

C) The Cross of Gold speech.

D) Private ownership of railroads and utilities.

E) Protective tariffs.



19)  In 1890 the United States Census reported that

A) more Americans lived in cities than on farms.

B) more immigrants came from Asia than Europe .

C) Hispanics were the largest minority group.

D) the frontier was officially closed.

E) most Americans lived west of the Mississippi .


20)  Arguably, some people have found which of the following movies to be an allegory for the political events of the 1890s?

A) My Big  Geek Wedding.

B) Blazing Saddles.

C) Austin Powers in Goldmember.

D) The Wizard of Oz.

E) Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.